Environmental Pollution: a Garbage Issue


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To assessment of general and gender specific health of women.

To view of dearth of published evidence. An interventional study was conducted in this study. The systematic random sampling is used. Where 168 women ragpickers were selected. Both general and gender-specific health needs of this socially and occupationally marginalized group, including health seeking behaviour were explored. 14 participants were trained as health volunteers to create awareness in the community. The data was analysed by SPSS Marriage at young age (child marriage), multiple pregnancies, low preference toward temporary methods of contraception, high addiction were prevalent in this lower socioeconomic young workforce. Morbidity was statistically significant among ragpickers who collected rags along dumpsite than street side and door to door waste collectors.

Effectiveness of Awareness Package on Occupational Health Hazards among Ragpickers of New Delhi, India

To study the effectiveness of awareness program on various occupational health hazards among the ragpickers. An interventional study was conducted. Snowball sampling technique was used to select the sample from the various areas. Health awareness and education package was designed for the samples. The package was delivered by medical officers and health workers. A post-test assessment was done 2 weeks after the awareness activity. 150 sample was taken. There was significant development in knowledge immediate post training on knowledge of occupational hazard and hygiene.

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Increased risk of cardiovascular disease in premenopausal female ragpickers of Eastern India: involvement of inflammation, oxidative stress, and platelet hyperactivity

To examine whether ragpicking is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease An experimental study was conducted. They have enrolled 112 premenopausal female ragpickers (median age 30 years) and 98 age-matched housemaids. Venous blood was drawn for routine hematology; flow cytometry was used to measure generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by leukocytes, surface expression of CD62P (P-selectin) in platelets and CD11b in leukocytes. The rag picking increases the threat of cardiovascular diseases in premenopausal inflammation, oxidative stress, platelet hyperactivity, and hypertension.

Bochum, Germany Occupational allergic respiratory diseases in garbage workers: relevance of molds and actinomycetes

To analysis of mold or bacteria-associated occupational respiratory diseases in garbage workers. Four cases of occupational respiratory illnesses related to garbage controlled were identified in our institute (IPA). Molds and actinomycetes were identified as allergens in all cases. Analyses of HP were essentially based on indicators and the detection of specific IgG serum antibodies to molds and actinomycetes. It is suggested to implement the full repertoire of diagnostic tools with bronchoalveolar lavage and high resolution computed tomography in the baseline examination

Analysis on the implementation of a health improvement project (Garbage Clinical Insurance) in Indonesia: a literature review

To critically examine the implementation of GCI in Indonesia by reviewing the background, effects, and sustainability of this program. A literature examines the studies related to GCI, other types of micro health insurance, and their applications in rising countries was conducted. Latest news (post 2014) related with the application of GCI was also consulted. The works revealed that the foundation of GCI was learnt by the Declaration of Alma Ata with the ideal of making health care services accessible to everyone. Unlike most health insurance, the mechanisms of GCI seem less likely to trigger moral danger among its beneficiaries. However, as a micro insurance program, the sustainability of GCI continues to be called into question.

The stigma of making a living from garbage: Meta-sterotypes of trash-pickers in Leon

o To analyses various aspects related to the meta-stereotype of trash pickers who made their living from the garbage dumps The city were questioned using a heteroapplied structured interview. The outcomes show that people who found their living from garbage in the city of Leon had a mainly negative meta-stereotype, albeit one to which was some extent indulgent, which could have a negative effect on their processes of social inclusion. Some changes were observed in the use of some attributes in the meta-stereotype according to age, cohabitation with a spouse and/or with parents, income level, engagement in paid work apart from gathering garbage and the respondents’ expectations for the upcoming.

Individual, physical, and organizational risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders among municipality solid waste collectors in Shiraz, Iran

To determine the prevalence rate of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and its associated risk factors. Two hundred male waste collectors participated in this cross-sectional study, in which task analysis monitored by motion and timeline analysis were completed. The data were collected using demographic, occupation-specific physical and organizational demands, and Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaires. Logistic regression analysis was used for categorizing self-determining risk factors for MSDs. Ten motions observed during waste collection, and the most physical and organizational demands were linked to the running along with bag carriage, and the time pressure About 39% and 36.5% of the workers reported very high physical and psychological workloads, respectively. Absolutely, 92.5% of waste collectors reported MSDs symptom at least in one body region during the last 12 months. Lower back and knee injuries were more prevalent and more severe. Some individual factors (age, body weight, and waste collecting duration), physical demands (lifting bag/bucket, pulling/pushing waste container, walking along with bag/bucket carriage, and jumping up/down on the garbage truck), and organizational demands (low vacation and high decision) were the most important dangerous factors for developing MSDs.

Medication wasted – Contents and costs of medicines ending up in household garbage

To analyse medicines drawn from household garbage in Vienna (Austria) and to assess possible financial implications for public payers. Four pharmaceutical waste samples collected by the Vienna Municipal Waste Department between April 2015 and January 2016 were examined with regard to their content. The worth of medicines was assessed at ex-factory, reimbursement and pharmacy retail price levels, and the portion of costs attributable to the social health insurance was determined. Data were extrapolated for Vienna and Austria. The waste sample contained 1089 items, of which 42% were excluded (non-pharmaceuticals, non-Austrian origin and non-attributable medicines). A total of 637 items were further analysed. Around 18% of these medicines were full packs. 36% of the medicines wasted had not yet expired. Nearly two out of three medicines wasted were prescription-only medicines. The majority were medicines related to the ‘alimentary tract and metabolism’ (ATC code A), the ‘nervous system’ (ATC code N) and the ‘respiratory system’ (ATC code R). The medicines wasted had a total value of euro 1965, euro 2987 and euro 4207, expressed at ex-factory, reimbursement and pharmacy retail price levels, respectively. Extrapolated for Vienna, at least euro 37.65 million in terms of expenditure for public payers were wasted in household garbage, corresponding to euro 21 per inhabitant.

Waste picker livelihoods and inclusive neoliberal municipal solid waste management policies: The case of the La Chureca garbage dump site in Managua, Nicaragua

To investigate waste pickers’ social and economic condition, including labor characteristics, household income, and poverty incidence, after the project’s completion 146 semi-structured survey questionnaires were administered to four communities adjacent to the landfill and 45 semi-structured interviews were completed with key stakeholders. Hundreds of waste pickers were displaced by the project, employment benefits from the project were unevenly distributed by eighbourhood, and informal waste picking endures due to persistent impoverishment, thereby contributing to continued social and economic marginalization and environmental degradation.

Hydrogen sulfide gas poisoning in fish garbage room: A report of a fisherman

To know high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas from the fish garbage room This is the single case of fisher man. The patient survived and was discharged with full recovery from the hospital. H2S is a colourless, foul smelling and highly toxic gas next to carbon monoxide, which causes inhalation death. It is a by-product of various industrial processes particularly involves exposure from agriculture, petrochemical industry and organic matter decomposition from sewage processing. Emergency physicians working in Pakistan should be aware of this entity especially in regard to fishermen presenting to the Emergency Department with such a clinical presentation and its toxic manifestations. This incident also illustrates the need of enforcement of health and safety regulations in the fishing industry.

Alteration in Leukocyte Subsets and Expressions of FcgammaR and Complement Receptors among Female Ragpickers in Eastern India

To examine whether their occupation adversely affects their immunity Seventy-four women ragpickers (median age, 30 years) and 65 age-matched control housemaids were enrolled. Flow cytometry was used to measure leukocyte subsets, and leukocyte expressions of Fcgamma receptor I (CD64), FcgammaRIII (CD16), complement receptor 1 (CD35) and CR3 (CD11b/CD18), and CD14. Serum total immunoglobulin-E was estimated with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay Ragpicking is associated with alterations in both innate (neutrophils, monocytes, and natural killer cell numbers and expression of complement and Fcgamma receptors) and adaptive immunity (numbers of circulating B cells, helper, cytotoxic, and memory T cells).

Application of a Modified Garbage Code Algorithm to Estimate Cause-Specific Mortality and Years of Life Lost in Korea

To estimate cause-specific mortality rates and YLLs in Korea by applying a modified garbage code algorithm. The garbage code algorithm was developed by the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study to redistribute inaccurate CoD and enhance the validity of CoD estimation. The garbage code algorithm was then applied to calculate target cause (i.e., valid CoD) and adjusted CoD using the garbage code redistribution. The garbage code deaths accounted for approximately 25% of all CoD during 2010-2012. In 2012, lung cancer contributed the most to cause-specific death according to the Statistics Korea. The burden of disease and help prioritize intervention settings by changing the relative importance of burden of disease.

Garbage in, Garbage Out: Data Collection, Quality Assessment and Reporting Standards for Social Media Data Use in Health Research, Infodemiology and Digital Disease Detection

To develop and apply a framework of social media data collection and quality assessment and to propose a reporting standard, which researchers and reviewers may use to evaluate and compare the quality of social data across studies A conceptual framework consisting of three major steps in collecting social media data: develop, apply, and validate search filters. This framework is based on two criteria: retrieval precision (how much of retrieved data is relevant) and retrieval recall (how much of the relevant data is retrieved). We then discuss two conditions that estimation of retrieval precision and recall rely on–accurate human coding and full data collection–and how to calculate these statistics in cases that deviate from the two ideal conditions We developed and applied a search filter to retrieve e-cigarette-related tweets from the archive based on three keyword categories: devices, brands, and behavior. The search filter retrieved 82,205 e-cigarette-related tweets from the archive and was validated. Retrieval precision was calculated above 95% in all cases. Retrieval recall was 86% assuming ideal conditions (no human coding errors and full data collection), 75% when unretrieved messages could not be archived, 86% assuming no false negative errors by coders, and 93% allowing both false negative and false positive errors by human coders

Workplace Accidents and Work-related Illnesses of Household Waste Collectors

To investigates the patterns of workplace injuries and work-related illnesses of HWCs. The cases of workplace injuries and work-related illnesses of HWCs that occurred between 2010 and 2011. We analyzed 325 cases of injuries and 36 cases of illnesses according to the workers’ age, length of employment, size of workplace, injured part of body, day and month of injury, type of accident, agency of accident, and collection process. The most injuries occur in workers in their 50s and older. This study also shows that 51.4% of injuries occur at businesses with 49 employees or fewer. Injuries to waste collectors happen most often when workers are electrocuted after slipping on the ground. The second most prevalent form of injury is falling, which usually happens when workers hang from the rear of the truck during transportation or otherwise slip and fall from the truck. Work-related illnesses amongst waste collectors are mostly musculoskeletal conditions due to damaging postures.

Selection and screening of microbial consortia for efficient and ecofriendly degradation of plastic garbage collected from urban and rural areas of Bangalore, India

To investigates an ecofriendly, efficient and cost-effective approach for plastic waste management by the screening of novel microbial consortia which are capable of degrading plastic polymers. The plastic-degrading bacteria were enriched, and degradation ability was determined by zone of clearance method. The percentage of polymer degradation was initially monitored by weight loss method, and the main isolates were characterized by standard microbiology protocols.The strains obtained from the Microbial Type Culture Collection (MTCC) and Gene Bank, India. One of the main enzymes responsible for polymer degradation was identified, and the biodegradation mechanism was hypothesized by bioinformatics studies. The bacteria utilized the plastic polymer as a sole source of carbon and showed 20-50% weight reduction over a period of 120 days. The microbial consortia formulated by combining Psuedomonas spp. showed 40 plastic weight reduction over a period of 90 days. Further, extracellular lipase, one of the main enzymes responsible for polymer degradation, was identified.

Do open garbage dumps play a role in canine rabies transmission in Biyem-Assi health district in Cameroon?

To prevent human deaths caused by rabies are often thwarted by the lack of community awareness. A cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate the level of community knowledge as well as the role of open garbage dumps (OGDs) in the epidemiology of human rabies. Overall 420 heads of household were interviewed in the Biyem-Assi health district of Yaounde. OGDs were identified through a systematic check, and household wastes they contained were characterized. 66.9% of respondents have knowledge on stray dogs, only 35% of respondents knew the role of OGDs in the increase of stray dog population. Overall OGDs consisted of fermentable wastes. Nutrition places for stray dogs were wild garbage dumps (68.1%), markets (18.3%), and houses (13.6%). The feeding behavior of stray dogs correlated significantly with the human rabies transmission (chi (2)=154.12, df=4, p<0.05).

Health profile of women ragpicker members of a nongovernmental organization in Mumbai, India

To assess the general and gender specific health of women An interventional study was conducted from October 2003 to April 2005 in Mumbai, at the field office of a nongovernmental organization working for women ragpickers. By the systematic random sampling 168 women ragpickers were selected. Both general and gender-specific health needs of this socially and occupationally marginalized group, including health seeking behavior were explored in this study. Fourteen participants were trained as health volunteers to create awareness in the local community. The data was analyzed by using SPSS version 11.0 software program (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA). Marriage at young age, multiple pregnancies, low preference toward temporary methods of contraception, high addiction were prevalent in this lower socioeconomic young workforce. Morbidity was statistically significant among ragpickers who collected rags along dumpsite than street side and door to door waste collectors (chi(2) = 27.8; df = 2; P < 0.001 significant). A need-based training program helped to improve knowledge of the participants [z = 12.7 (P < 0.05)]

Municipal waste collectors and hepatitis B and C virus infection: a cross-sectional study

o To investigate the prevalence and possible risk factors of HBV and HCV infections among waste collectors in a municipality of the broader region of Attica, Greece. A cross-sectional sero-prevalence study was conducted in a municipality of the broader region of Attica, Greece. Fifty waste collectors participated in the study (response rate: 95%). The group of municipal waste collectors was compared to a convenient sample of white collar employees not exposed to waste (No 83). An increased prevalence of Hepatitis B infection among municipal waste collectors. In addition we found that needle stick injuries were associated with the risk of HBV infection.

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