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Heart Transplant: Process, Precautions, Risks, State Support

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Heart Transplant

Heart transplant is the surgeries that are done to the patients who suffer from the condition where the heart is damaged or the patients have failed from all the optional treatments and the condition is in the last stage failure. The operation involves replacing the damaged heart with a new health human heart from the donor when needed by the person who has the heart failure problems for some time. It’s argued that over two thousand people get operated with the heart failure in the US in every year with the age gap ranging from sixty-four to seventy years of age and the high percentage affected involves the male (Karp & James 120- 126).

A recent research shows that the heart failure is caused by the severe conditions such as the coronary, hereditary conditions and heart diseases failure. However, these transplants times apply to lung, kidney and severe heart attacks. The heart transplant is applicable to the patients who have suffered the heart attack disease for some time and the condition that does not respond to any medication used. The heart transplant surgery is done from United States America (USA) where the organ transplant machines are readily available in the National Organ Procurement and Networks. The heart surgery is carried out in the hospital laboratory where the special surgeons perform the operation and at this situation, the patient will not be in the senses until the operation is done. The medication is injected through the intravenous line using the left arm and the breathing tube is also connected to the ventilation to aid the patient in breathing.

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The process of heart plantation involves two consents; explicit and presumed consent, explicit consent involves the donor providing the heart organ directly through registration after following the required regulations of a certain country. Presumed consent does not involve direct nor is the next of kin in order to provide the heart organ but it assumed that the donor will be allowed in case a consent case is carried out (Levy & Jack 87). The operation is done by first opening the patient’s chest that connects the arteries, veins, and capillaries to an artificial heart-lung bypass. After careful fixation, the diseased heart is therefore disconnected or removed. The same procedure is again followed carefully to reconnect the heart donor using the bypass machine and the heart organ is reconnected and the process is completed by closing the chest.

The patient stays in the intensive care unit for four weeks to recover and during this period the patient is subjected to the cardiac rehabilitation the program that keeps track of the patient’s health condition. During this program, the patient also undergoes some treatment that monitors the general weight, the pulse rate, blood pressure, and the body temperature. The patient is discharged from the hospital after one month of which the patient keeps on attending regular checkups to test for the rejection and the infections of the new heart and track the progress of the new heart (Parker & Philip 68). The heart transplant patients are given the health program routine that boosts their healthy lifestyle to protect them from adverse heart risks of the new organ. The heart recipient transplants attain high medical care that controls the patients’ high blood pressures and resettles to the improved heartbeat with moderation of exercise that improves the heart rate.

The operation has assisted the patients with the heart failure, kidney, and even liver dysfunction get a significant change of 85% surviving during their first year of transplant operation while the 78 surviving beyond the 5 years, the 55 survival ranging between the 10 years. The patient just returns to their normal life with less activity performance, hence the need for focusing on long-term results of the heart transplant that includes good physical health and improved cardiovascular mortality of the patients. However, the patients are limited from excessive work and the kind of exercise they partake. The operation has a good outcome for the patients since they are given a training called high-intensity exercise that efficiently improves the working capacity of the patients (Karp & James 140). For a decade of years, scientists have discovered that heart transplant has assisted in saving the lives of the patients discovered with the heart problems.

The safety precautions need to be taking to avoid the heart transplant rejection where the cells of the body may not adapt to the newly planted heart and will cause severe damage to the organ (Ruschitzka548- 549). Therefore the patients are subjected to medication that is immunosuppressant which improve the immune system of the new heart and adapt so that the patients do not experience the heat rejection. Additionally, the patients may be exposed to other diseases such as the kidney damage, high blood pressure, lymphoma cells of the immune system and osteoporosis. The risks of the heart transplant may result in the deaths called the primary heart dysfunction due to the organ transplant. The first death may occur within the first six months when the immune system rejects the newly transplanted heart.

In most case heart transplant has adverse risks that are difficult to be assessed after the operation has been completed, and some health conditions start developing that make it so difficult to be maintained through the normal medication. The procured involves a series of decision by the health surgeons who perform the operation so that the patient can live longer and better life. The side effects of the heart transplant include complications such as infections, diabetes, organ rejection and the coronary artery diseases (Tansey & Lois 96). However, the patients are advised to avoid smoking and alcohol consumption since it’s the major cause of the heart and lung diseases in the overall world population. Smoking damages the lungs and heart directly and causes the breathing problems.

Proper heart maintenance involves, incorporating the cardiac rehabilitation program, regular and limited exercise and the education from the medical expert’s assists in the quick recovery after the heart transplant problems. Also, the psychological counseling is administered after the surgery so that the patient can maintain the emotional stress. The patients can set their own goals and always seek the right advice from their doctors and educate themselves in taking care of their own body (Ruschitzka548). The patients are advised to take some medications and keep their nutrition program requirements so that the body is able to balance and protect from the reverse conditions. The patients of a newly planted heart are also cautioned from taking the sugary and concentrated foods so as to reduce the blood pressure and keep the body at a moderated range. Eating more fruits and vegetables, eating low milk fat content, consume low salt, avoid smoking and alcohol consumption.

In conclusion, heart transplant has greatly contributed to life-saving when needed by the person suffering from the heart attacks. It’s argued that heart failure is basically caused by the conditions such as the coronary, hereditary conditions and the heart failure. The heart transplant patients are given the health programs that enable them to monitor their healthy lifestyle so that after the surgery patients are not risked to other infections (Tansey & Lois 106). The heart transplant program has assisted the patients with the heart failure to survive for some years. The patients regain their normal healths despite them are limited to some exercises and doing heavy work. However, the heart transplant has the side effects to the patients since after the operation the patients suffer other diseases such as organ rejection by the blood veins that results to the deaths.

Works Cited:

  1. Karp, Seth J, James Morris, and Stanley Zaslau. Surgery. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2009. Print.
  2. Levey, Stephen, and Jack G. Copeland. Heart Transplant Surgery. Tucson, Ariz: The University, 1981.
  3. Parker, James N, and Philip M. Parker. Heart Transplant: A Medical Dictionary, Bibliography and Annotated Research Guide to Internet References.
  4. San Diego, CA: ICON Health Publications, 2004. Internet resource. Ruschitzka, Frank, et al. “Acute heart transplant rejection due to Saint John’s wort.” The Lancet 355.9203 (2000): 548-549.
  5. Tansey, E M, and Lois A. Reynolds. Early Heart Transplant Surgery in the Uk: Witness Seminar Transcript. London: Wellcome Trust, 1999. Print.

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