Heat Transfer Enhancement by Nanofluids


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Nanofluids in modern age are attracting the attention of researchers. In many industrial applications, nuclear reactors, transportation, electronics as well as biomedicine and food, the method of improving nanofluid heat transfer takes pace. The main focus of this article is to explain the fundamental processes of heat transfer enhancement by adding nano particles. Heat transfer rate is high when nanofluids are used as coolant than the base fluids like water and ethylene glycol.


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From previous investigations, nanofluids are found to possess increased thermo physical properties like thermal physical phenomenon, thermal diffusivity, viscousness and convective h eat transfer coefficients compared to those of base fluids like oil or water.the consequences of many necessary factors like particle size and shapes, clump of particles, temperature of the fluid, and dissociation of wetting agent on the effective thermal physical phenomenon of nanofluids haven’t been studied adequately.From this review, it will be seen that nanofluids clearly exhibit increased thermal physical phenomenon, which matches up with increasing volumetrical fraction of nanoparticles.It’s necessary to try and do additional analysis therefore on ascertain the consequences of those factors on the thermal physical phenomenon of wide selection of nanofluids.Classical models can’t be accustomed justify adequately the determined increased thermal physical phenomenon of nanofluids.

What Are Nanofluids:

However, issues of physical science and stability square measure amplified at high concentrations, precluding the widespread use of standard slurries as heat transfer fluids.Nanofluids square measure solid-liquid composite materials consisting of solid nanoparticles or nanofibers with sizes generally of 1-100 nm suspended in liquid.In some cases, the determined sweetening in thermal physical phenomenon of nanofluids is orders of magnitude larger than foreseen by well-established theories.

Synthesis OF Nanofluids:

For instance, nanoparticles of oxides, nitrides, metals, metal carbides, and non-metals with or while not surface-active agent molecules will be spread into fluids like water, ethanediol, or oils. reckoning on the wants of a specific application, several mixtures of particle materials and fluids square measure of potential interest. The improvement of nanofluid thermal properties needs in synthesis procedures for making stable suspensions of nanoparticles in liquids.

Several studies, along with the oldest nanofluid investigations, used a ballroom dance technique in which original nanoparticles or nanotubes square measure produced as a dry powder, typically by argononon condensation. Usually straightforward methods such as supersonic agitation or adding surfactants to the square measure of liquids minimize particle aggregation and enhance dispersion behaviour.

Thermal Conductivity Of Nanofluids:

With the limit of a small, low-volume fraction of nanoparticles f, all versions of the effective medium theory converge to an equivalent resolution and, within the limits of high thermal physical phenomenon particles, predict that the improvement of the thermal physical phenomenon of nanofluid is 3f. Nanofluids are composite materials and hence any debate of the physical nanofluid heat phenomenon should begin with medium theories. Mossotti, Clausius, Maxwell and Konrad Lorenz launched effective medium theories in the late 19th century, strongly identified with Bruggeman’s job and since then fully investigated and implemented in several areas of science and engineering. Since the associated mixture of nanoparticles occupies extra space than the individual nanoparticles that make up the combination, the aggregate quantity fraction is larger than the nanoparticles quantity fraction. So, if the nanoparticles are aggregate, we’ll expect an associated improvement of approximately 3f/0.6 or 5f within the thermal physical phenomenon. Many of the outcomes for high nanoparticles levels can also be understood to be supported by effective medium theory, if we tend to afford the probability that nanoparticles have clustered into small aggregates. Even greater improvements are possible potential for additional loosely packed clusters associate enhancement within the thermal physical phenomenon of roughly 5f is commonly determined.

However, the nanoparticle, this decrease in physical phenomenon we tend to estimate issues an element of 2 decrease in the combination’s thermal physical phenomenon relative to the nanoparticle will not be a major consideration if the nanoparticles ‘ physical activity is sufficiently large.

Effect of some parameters on thermal conductivity of nanofluids:

Following are some important parameters on which thermal conductivity of nanofluids depend a lot. 

They are as follows

  • Particle vol. fraction
  • Particle material
  •  Particle size
  •  Particle shape
  •  Particle material and base fluid
  •  Temperature
  • Acidity effect (pH)


Methods Of Heat Transfer Improvement:

1. Clustering Of Nano Particles:

It was totally discovered that surface resistance reduces the enhancement in heat physical phenomenon once it includes surface resistance, but this reduction reduces for nanofluids with gigantic clusters. However, the nanofluid with clusters showed relatively lower enhancement of the heat physical phenomenon as the proportion of particle quantity increased.

2. Thermophoresis:

Thermophoresis or the Soret effect could be a growth determined once the force of a gradient is subjected to a combination of two or more types of motile particles (particles prepared to move). In an extremely natural convection technique, wherever the flow is powered by buoyancy and temperature, the growth is most essential. The particles travel within the direction of decreasing temperature and also the method of warmth transfer will increase with a decrease within the bulk density.


It is an apparently random movement of particles suspended in a very liquid or gas and the movement is also due to collisions with base fluid molecules, which makes the particles withstand random-walk movement. Thus, as per the kinetic theory of particle gases, the Brownian motion intensifies with an increase in temperature. Some scientists have encouraged that the potential mechanism for thermal physical phenomenon enhancement is that energy transfer through collision with reduced particles of upper temperature. The Brownian motion’s efficacy reduces with an increase in the consistency of the bulk.

Result and Discussion:

· Temperature -viscosity graph:

There are two lines in the graph. One is the base fluid without nano particles and the other is the ice dragon liquid, a nano fluid type. From the graph it is obviously seen that its viscosity reduces by raising the temperature of nano fluid. But its viscosity reduces by a big quantity compared with the base fluid.

· Thermal conductivity-particle diameter graph:

The graph is between the size of particles and the ratio of thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity of nanoparticles rises by reducing the particle diameter because by reducing the particle size the Brownian motion reduces and as a consequence the randomness will reduce, which will boost the thermal conductivity as a consequence.

· Thermal conductivity- particle volume :

This is a graph between particle volume fraction and thermal conductivity. By increasing the particle volume fraction its thermal conductivity increases simultaneously. But some authors have different relations between thermal conductivity and particle volume fraction.


1. It is seen that the findings show a lot of differences.

2. It can be stated that by raising the percentage of temperature and particle size, the thermal conductivity of nano particles rises.

3. Nano particle anarchic motion will boost fluid disruption and turbulence, which will boost the technique of warmth exchange.

4. The coefficient of convective heat transfer is increased by raising the concentration of particles and the amount of Reynolds.

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