The primary purpose of this section is how Armesto begins to talk about the working and society along with the shift of power from the west causing an outbreak in political developments in the nineteenth century.
The most critical information in this reading was how we see going into this unit countries begin to start relying more on machinery which has helped in the overall production. And what puzzled me was how many people felt that shifting to machines was strange to them. I came to realize this when Armesto stated “…at the time, industrialization was a strange experience for those caught up in changes that seemed disruptive, disturbing, and often hard to endure” (813). People were so used to the old way of production that they seemed confused at what technology had brought to them. Many workers were shocked by how fast the future was coming in a way. As technology improved equipment so did work areas. We see the nineteenth century was also big on introducing factories and mines. And for me at this point, I feel like this is like a beginning into a new age the way Armesto introduces this type of industrialization it gives me like a shiver in the way the that I know 20th century isn’t too far ahead. Besides this, we also saw that many known cites were increasing regarding population and this brought out an increase in how jobs at factories were growing. More people were coming to popular cities, and more jobs were becoming available.
The fundamental ideas we need to understand in this reading are how the economy grow as a whole because many opportunities were arising to people that had no chance in the past. But we also see that the slave trade was also going on which gave many people who bought them to work for them in what seemed to be awful conditions. And going back to the topic of slavery it always looks so strange to me that we as a society used to do things like that. But then again coming back to Armesto we see that female and child labor was widespread as well. Many women and children would work long hours and not be paid as much. And as we get closer and closer to the 20th century, we see that all these things that were happening back then really makes us feels as were all wrong people but I also realize we were maturing little by little as well.
And even when we compare the situation from then to now, we see that there were people considered “elites” back then like today where they were seen as people who were evil and greedy. And from reading through this specific section of Armesto, I began to realize that a lot of things were quite the same concerning where we stand in levels of wealth.
If we are to take this line of reasoning seriously, the implications are going more into the nineteenth century when the opium war sprouted in which the British and the Chinese got into a conflict of trade. Some of the British wanted to sell opium in China where they believed the demand had increased. But the Chinese authorities according to Armesto felt that it was unnecessary. They felt having an excess amount of opium in their country was not benefitting them which eventually lead to the tension. And we see for Britain it didn’t seem like such a significant loss because they were one of the leading nations to be in the lead of industrialization. I noticed that this was called business imperialism which related to that of the industrialization expansion. And as this expansion grew mostly through Europe, we saw that it wasn’t only nations that were “white.” Armesto goes to mention “Ethiopia is a reminder that even in the nineteenth-century imperial expansion was not a white privilege” (855). I enjoyed this statement by Armesto in that he goes into detail about how Ethiopia proved many nations wrong in that even non-white nations could be a bit successful as well.
I feel like the Europeans shouldn’t have underestimated the other nations outside of Europe because those other nations could become a powerful nation in the future. So upon reading more of Armesto, I began to see that imperialism was spreading to what seemed outside of Europe and I felt that it was a positive thing to hear about and picture this was another foundation being set in history. While reading more, I came across the image of the “American Progress” on pg. 870 which stood out to me because of how it represents what was becoming of American and as I remember looking at it this time again I feel a more deeper understanding because of how Armesto explains the situation that was happening in place of the picture. And throughout high school, I took several history classes, and I remember this image and it justs feels more real to me now than it did in the past.
The main points of view presented in this article are how we see Armesto we come to see many nations in Europe were experiencing what seemed to be a significant amount of bonding as a nation. I saw this as a step into a more stable nation in how the people were finally coming in as a type of unit that would have each other’s back. And going back to what I know sometimes it’s hard to support your nation to the full extent because sometimes we don’t always support their actions. Armesto went on to explain “To some extent, Western empires deliberately encouraged nationalism around the world, regarding it’s spread as evidence of successful Westernization and the fulfillment of Westerners supposedly civilizing mission” (886). This quote gave me some insight on how this concept was working through Europe and how it was making it’s to other parts of the how this world. During this time this did not feel like that was the problem, and I think many of us could be a little more united as a nation. This idea also brought in Constilaism which was also played a significant role in the process of coming together. People of society were beginning to agree upon each other on what would be the best possible way to grow as one. I feel like all these arising concepts were desperately needed because nations were starting to arm themselves with armies which possibly required more money to be running such functions.
As time was passing armies seemed to be more needed to due to possible danger in the future. As I read more into the reading, we can confirm that the non-physical conflicts were the ones that were becoming the most important in such a period. We see this consisted of lots of different concepts and the one that indeed stood out to me was the idea of utilitarianism which I feel goes way back to the first unit of Armesto in which I thought that the things we do sometimes benefit others. By this, I mean that sometimes people do things that they initially did for themselves and now they have helped others in the process. And this relates to this situation because people believed that such events should happen only if it will serve them in the long run. Therefore I think utilitarianism is so dominant that it shows people that some decisions can actually make a difference but in such a society so twisted like today and even in the past it seems people sometimes don’t believe in what figures can become, but we see all these improvements in the society have actually shown that to be false which I profoundly agree upon.
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