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How Does Environmental Change Affect The Growth Of C4 Plants In Comparison To C3 Plants

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Current and predicted pattern of global climate change are a major concern in many areas of socio- economic activities, such as agriculture, forestry, etc. , and is a major threat for biodiversity and ecosystem function (Lepetz et al. , 2009). Climate change is a result from emission of greenhouse gases (e. g. CO2, CH4, & N2O, etc. ) in the past century that will cause atmospheric warming (IPCC, 2007). The effects have become particularly obvious over the last 30 years in the natural environment and it will affect all level of life, from the individual, population species community and ecosystem to the eco-region level (Lepetz et al. , 2009). The main issue that every country, private sector, institutions, etc. must face is how to adapt the future changes in climate that will occur.

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Agriculture is one of the sectors, which are both sensitive to global warming (e. g. through, atmospheric temperature, precipitation, soil moisture, sea level and humidity) and contributes to climate change. A report from Intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC, 2007) shows that CO2 released from agriculture to large extent comes from microbial decay or burning of plant residue and organic matter. CH4 produced during fermentation of organic material, emitted from ruminant animals, stored manure (waste), and rice farming under flooded condition, etc. N2O generated by microbial transformation of nitrogen in soil, manures and often, enhanced where there is high availability of N, especially under wet condition (Smith et al. , 2007). The production of greenhouse gases from agriculture is complex and heterogeneous, but active management of agricultural system can give possibilities for mitigation (IPCC, 2007).

The ecosystem, and balance between different dominating species and abiotic factors can be highly affected by climate change. Tree cover provides a habitat for numerous herbaceous plants, fungi, and lichens, small and large animals. Thus, loss of tree cover will affect virtually all species that make up a complex forest ecosystem (Hardy, 2003). In order to increase the function of component of some terrestrial species we need to conserve and manage agroecosystems. Srinivasarao et al. , (2016) carried out a study between 2005 and 2010 based on the C dynamics and the properties of soil in C3 and C4 plant crops as C3 and C4 plant crops responded to elevated levels of CO2. Srinivasarao et al. , (2016) results indicated that during periods of consistent rainfall on low fertile soils, the plants biomass increased when the CO2 levels were elevated but the ratio of root-to-shoot decreased in some C3 plants such as Ricinus communis and Vigna mungo. The elevated CO2 levels had a huge impact on the sequestration of C and improved the retention of water in C3 plants (Srinivasarao et al. , 2016). In contrast, C4 plants increased the amount of carbon in the soil (Srinivasarao et al. , 2016).

Tubiello et al. , (2000) analysed the impacts of elevated CO2 levels on transpiration and crop photosynthesis. Tubiello et al. , (2000) results indicated that the elevation of CO2 levels decreased crop yields. Sustainable practices such as planting the crops earlier by using slower-maturing cereal crops during the winter period can be used to maintain crop yields (Tubiello et al. , 2000).

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