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How Does Nanotechnology Work in Various Fields of Science

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Nanotechnology is known as the study and use of structures between 1 nanometer and 100 nanometers in size. Scientists have been studying and working with nanoparticles for centuries, but the effect of their work has been hampered by their inability to see the structure of nanoparticles. In recent years the development of microscopes capable of displaying particles as small as atoms has allowed scientists to see what they are working with. 

The following illustration titled “The Scale of Things”, created by the U. S. Department of Energy, provides a comparison of various objects to help you begin to envision exactly how small the unit of nanometer is. The chart starts with objects that can be seen by the unaided eye, such as an ant, at the top of the chart, and progresses to objects about a nanometer or less in size, such as the ATP molecule used in humans to store energy from food. 

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 QUESTIONS 

 Elaborate the concept of Nanotechnology

Nanotechnology is study,science, engineering, and technology conducted at the nanoscale, which is about 1 to 100 nanometers. Nanoscience and nanotechnology are the study and application of extremely small things and can be used across all the other science fields, such as (science) chemistry, biology, physics, materials science, and engineering.

Nanoscience and nanotechnology involve the ability to see and to control individual atoms and molecules which goes onto elements. 

But something as small as an atom is impossible to see with the naked eye. In fact, it’s impossible to see with the microscopes typically used in a high school science classes. The microscopes needed to see things at the nanoscale were invented relatively recently—about 30 to 40 years ago.

How does Nanotechnology work in various fields of Science?

Nanotechnology is an emerging technology which is widely expected to provide technical answers and economically successful products in various fields of application. In other words discovery in nanotechnology implies increasingly impact on life sciences . It refers to a set of technologies that are being applied to numerous existing industries has mainly three overlapping areas such as nanoelectronics, nanomaterials, nanobiotechnology which find applications in various fields like electronics, materials, environment, items,metrology, robotics, healthcare, information technology, pharmaceutics, agriculture, transport etc.

There are many potentially valuable prospects in nanotechnology for drug delivery systems.  

Polymer nanoparticles: 

Polymer drug are used as drug delivery systems as many pharmaceuticals are not soluble in water, inefficiency towards specific target site. Some of the common examples include PEGylated liposomal nanoparticle formulation of GMP-grade WHI-P131 exhibited potent in vivo activity shows therapeutic potential against breast cancer than chemotherapy drugs like paclitaxel, gemcitabine.  

Vaccines: 

Number of systems have been developed which can be used as an alternative to common biological vaccine methods. Of which nanovectors developed for influenza is one of the example.

Tissue engineering: 

Tissue engineering is the interface between pharmaceutical and biomedical industry where nanotechnology will have real impact. In developed countries, this field growing rapidly in terms of commercial importance day-by-day .

 Applications of Nanotechnology in Medicines

Nanotechnology in health care not only has the potential to change medical science dramatically and as part of beneficial nanotechnology in developing countries, but to open a new field of human enhancements that is poised to add a profound and intricate set of ethical questions for health care professionals. 

Some of the various applications of nanotechnology in mental and physical wellbeing are:  

 Nanomedicine Diagnostics: 

 In the past few years, imaging has become a critical tool in the diagnosis of disease. The improvements in the form of magnetic resonance and computer tomography are remarkable, but nanotechnology promises sensitive and extremely accurate tools for in vitro and in vivo diagnostics far beyond the reach of today’s state-of-the-art equipment.  

 Nanomedicine Therapy: 

 In terms of therapy, the most significant effect of nanomedicine is expected to be realized in drug delivery and regenerative medicine. Nanoparticles enable physicians to target drugs and medicines at the source of the disease, which increases efficiency and minimizes side effects. They also offer new possibilities for the controlled release of therapeutic substances. 

Nanotechnology to Cure Diseases: 

 There are plenty of examples where nanotechnology is being applied to cure cancer and other diseases. Here are some of them:

  • Alzheimer’s disease 
  •  Lung disease 
  • Common causes of blindness 
  •  Acne 
  •  Nanotechnology’s role in HIV/AIDS treatment 
  • Enhancing radiation therapy with nanotechnology

 

How do we use Nanotechnology in everyday life?

hough nanotechnology is a relatively new science, it already has numerous applications in everyday life, ranging from consumer goods to medicine to improving the environment. 

Here are a few examples: 

Medicine  

We have already covered the numerous uses of nanotechnology in medicines. 

Electronics 

Nanoelectronics holds some answers on expanding the capabilities of electronics devices can be expanded while reducing their weight and power consumption. . One researcher believes it may be possible to put the power of all of today’s present computers in the palm of your hand. 

Environment 

Nanotechnology is being used in several applications to improve the environment. This includes cleaning up existing pollution, improving manufacturing methods to reduce the generation of new pollution, and making alternative energy sources more cost effective

Consumer Products 

Nanotechnology has already found its way into numerous consumer products you use every day, from clothing to skin lotion and creams. They include: 

  •  Silver nanoparticles in fabric that kill bacteria making clothing odor-resistant. 
  •  Skin care products that use nanoparticles to deliver vitamins deeper into the skin 
  • Lithium ion batteries that use nanoparticle-based electrodes powering plug-in electric cars 
  • Flame retardant formed by coating the foam used in furniture with carbon nanofibers. 

 

Sporting Goods  

If you’re a tennis or golf fan, you’ll be glad to hear that even sporting goods have been improved by nanotechnology. Current nanotechnology applications in the sports arena include: 

  • Increasing the strength of tennis racquets by adding nanotubes to the frames which increases control and power when you hit the ball. 
  • Filling any imperfections or flaws in golf club shaft materials with nanoparticles; this improves the uniformity of the material that makes up the shaft and thereby improving your swing.
  • Reducing the rate at which air leaks from tennis balls so they keep their bounce longer and easier.
  •  Green Chemistry for Nanotechnology: Opportunities and Future Challenges

 

Basically green chemistry is the eco-friendly way to produce materials with reduced usage and generation of hazardous substances from biodegradable, safe materials and if not fully, few issues associated with nanotoxicology and hazards or problems can be dealt up to a good extend with green approaches of synthesis. “Green synthesis” or “Green Nanotechnology” is a newly developed platform to design products that are benevolent to human and environment health and has huge potential to revolutionize large scale Nano synthesis procedures . These green synthesis approaches for nanomaterials are meant to benefit environmental and biomedicine segments of nanotechnology applications in future. 

Challenges 

Although green nanotechnology shows a bright picture of clean, eco friendly and safe future, it has the challenge to not only deal with the possible toxicity issues but to prepare a new ground for sustainable nano materials production while considering environmental and health aspects. Still this area has its own barriers and challenges to deal with. As per the report produced by ACS Green Chemistry Institute , the key challenges in green nanotechnology are: 

  •  Technical barriers 
  • Handling of toxicity of nanomaterials 
  •  Regulatory policies for synthesis and 
  • Industrial deployment of scale up procedures.

 

Conclusion

As a conclusion to this topic we would like to say that Nanotechnology is a brand new technology that has just began, it is a revolutionary science that will change all what we knew before. The future that we were watching just in science fiction movies will in the near future become real. This new technology will first of all, keep us healthy because of nanorobots that will repair damage that we have in our body. Secondly, it will give scientists the ability to manipulate the combination of atoms in an object and to turn it into a lighter, stronger, and more durable object than before, just by using carbon filled nanotubes.Thirdly, Nanotechnology will give us an abundant energy because it will transform energy more effectively and easily. Nanotechnology covers a lot of domains today and will cover a lot more in the coming future, it is infinitely big and will make a lot of inventions come true like teleportation for example which scientists are working on today. 

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