To discuss this question, it needs to think about the term “shared knowledge” and “confidence”. These two words will have a different impression on the different area of knowledge. So, to discuss the question more clearly, I came up with a knowledge question “To what extent language will change the shared knowledge?” and “How the change in time will affect the confidence to gets the knowledge?”. To solve these questions, I will use the two Areas of Knowledge, natural science which will focus on the verity or fundamental fact in the time and human science which will focus on why it will happen or how it will change in the time.
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In the first knowledge question “To what extent language will change the shared knowledge?”, On this question, I assume that language is meant as a term that uses in that Area of Knowledge. So, it could say that there will have a minor extent on the language in natural science, and human science has a major extent on the language that will have a change the shared knowledge.
Natural science has a lot of terms and their term will have an effect on their study as time and technology develop. However, even their term or language change, a fundamental idea toward science doesn’t change. Example of natural science, there is a term called classification. There is a bird called Toki, which scientific name is Nipponia Nippon (The Return of the Crested Ibis, 2019). This Toki was a bird lived in Japan, China, Korea. Most were lived in Asia and now it is designated as a national natural treasure in Japan (Asian Crested Ibis, n.d.). When Toki was first named by Zoologist, Coenraad Jacob Temminck, it was called Ibis nippon. Then on 1852, Ludwig Reichenbach named Toki as Nipponia temmincki (Species, n.d.). This was named because, on biology when zoologist that found a new animal, it can decide the name depend on the animal’s genus and species based on the rule for binomial nomenclature. Sometimes, it could have a name of a person in that name. And lastly, Toki was named Nipponia nippon which both Temminck and Reichenbach’s naming was used (The Return of the Crested Ibis, 2019). This scientific name is still used in now’s science. But even their scientific name changes many time, their fundamental idea toward the Toki doesn’t change. There is no effect on the Toki’s define which could say that language will don’t change the shared knowledge about Toki. Because natural science will focus on the things idea, their language will doesn’t have the big effect of language change. So, this knowledge question will back to the beginning of question that shows shared knowledge in the natural science’s language will change over time but doesn’t undermine our confidence.
Human science could have a major effect on the change of language. The main study that could say it will affect language change, is linguistics. As time goes on, literature will develop and will affect the formation of the word. William Shakespeare is a person who effects on the formation of English today. Before Shakespeare’s literature was been famous, English doesn’t have a clear rule toward the grammar, it was not standardized. Their English was obvious for them. But it change their mind of language when Shakespeare’s literature was developed and their word choice started to be different. Hephzibah Anderson, who is a columnist of BBC says that “English language in ways so profound it’s almost impossible to fully gauge his impact” (Anderson, 2014). It says that Shakespeare’s literature affects the language. ‘Addiction’ is one of the words that Shakespeare made which comes from Othello is still used today (Racoma, 2017). Shared knowledge in the language changes not standardized to standardized form. From these points, it says that language can change people’s word choice and change the shared knowledge of the language to improve their communication. It could connect to the knowledge question that can say changes of shared knowledge will undermine current knowledge.
The second question is “How the change in time will affect the confidence to gets the knowledge?”. Time could change when there is a turning point. Ratio change in majority and minority or having a big problem will affect to have a turning point. It could say that both natural science and human science will have a major effect on the change of time.
Natural science is focused on the verity or fundamental fact. Through the search, it will have a development of technology. As age will pass through, the fundamental idea that they try to have will become clear and could able to get on to it. One example of the effect of the time change that gets on to the fundamental idea was the research of dinosaurs. It could say that this research of dinosaurs is a one of paradigm shift. John Ostrom is paleontologist who discovered the dinosaurs and made an opinion that dinosaurs are able to have a high sociality, live similarly as now’s mammals (Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History, 2010). His opinion effect to the general idea or image of dinosaurs. Another example is about DNA’s double helix structure. This double helix structure is proved by the scientist Francis Crick and James Watson (The Francis Crick Papers, n.d.). Previous DNA structure was known as there is an equal amount of Adenine and Thymine, Cytosine and Guanine. Or has a secondary structure including αhelix and βhelix. And may has a tertiary structure (The Francis Crick Papers, n.d.). Crick and Watson’s double helix structure made a scientist to have a clear image on DNA and accelerate their research of the human body. Both opinion toward that study effect on the existing idea which is shared knowledge. It also effects to have other research to prove their opinion by other perception. Changes of time will effect to the shared knowledge which is able to sway the general knowledge but has a positive effect to gets a new knowledge. It will related to knowledge question that change will undermine our confidence of knowledge.
Human science is focused on how it will have a change or why it will change. Since it is different from natural science’s focus: search the fundamental idea, human science will have a different effect on the time change. Their hypothesis will change as time goes on. Economist’s modeling or like the hypothesis of winning in the election, these hypotheses will affect a time change or ratio change of majority and minority (Campbell, Mann, 2016). Riemann shock is known as an economic event that made the world to have a trouble and wasn’t able to predict by the economist. It made a change in the general idea toward the economics. Actually, this event was not suddenly happening. There were a few omens which leaded Riemann shock to happen. Omen was like Paribas shock which was a disturbance on the BNP Paribas (Cecchetti, Schoenholtz, 2017). This disturbance shows an unreliable to the Sub-prime loan. It was able to predict the something not well to economics can happen. However, Riemann shock occurred and the world has been depressed. The economist who will predict or make an opinion why it happens and how it happen, wasn’t able to predict. Change of time made their general opinion to be a break and give a factor of the negative impact of Sub-prime loan. So, answering the knowledge question by the human science side, it could also say that change of time will have the confidence to gets the knowledge. It can connect to the knowledge question that change of shared knowledge could undermine our confidence but also have a confidence to gets the accurate knowledge.
According to the two knowledge question, “To what extent language will change the shared knowledge?” and “How the change in time will affect the confidence to gets the knowledge?”, it says that natural science is focused on the fundamental idea and even language changes their opinion doesn’t get so much effect. However, to reach to the fundamental idea, they will allow the new knowledge which causes by the time changes. On human science, it can say that language will able to affect the general language as Shakespeare effect to the public. Also, time changes will affect to their opinion and add a new factor to it to make their prediction more accurate. So, back to the first question “Shared knowledge often changes over time. Does this fact undermine our confidence in current shared knowledge?”. From knowledge question I made, shared knowledge are able to change over time in some area of knowledge. Time makes a technology to be developed, make a chance for people including researcher to develop their idea toward shared knowledge. It will undermine our confidence in shared knowledge but that undermine doesn’t mean a negative thing. It shows how to develop the new, more persuadable knowledge compare to the current shard knowledge. Undermining current shared knowledge will improve to have more accurate knowledge. It shows by the field of natural science as the development of modeling in DNA’s structure or shown by the economic modeling and opinion (hypothesis) toward the current society. Though, each area of knowledge has a different purpose to pursuit their knowledge, it will have a different perspective toward the knowledge question.
1.Anderson, H. (2014, October 21). Culture Retrieved July 2, 2019, from http://www.bbc.com/culture/story/20140527-say-what-shakespeares-words
2.Asian Crested Ibis (Nipponia nippon). (n.d.). Retrieved July 16, 2019, from https://www.hbw.com/species/asian-crested-ibis-nipponia-nippon
3.Campbell, J. E., & Mann, T. E. (2016, July 28). Forecasting the Presidential Election: What can we learn from the models? Retrieved July 16, 2019, from https://www.brookings.edu/articles/forecasting-the-presidential-election-what-can-we-learn-from-the-models/
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7.Racoma, B. (2017, September 12). William Shakespeare: His Influence in the English Language. Retrieved June 25, 2019, from https://www.daytranslations.com/blog/2014/01/william-shakespeare-influence-english-language-3665/
8.Species. (n.d.). Retrieved July 16, 2019, from https://www.speciesplus.net/#/taxon_concepts/9080/names
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10The Return of the Crested Ibis. (2019, March 06). Retrieved July 16, 2019, from https://www.nippon.com/en/features/c03908/the-return-of-the-crested-ibis.html