Human Anatomy: Study of the Skeletal System

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The skeletal system consists of 206 bones split up into sections and types. Some of the major bones in the body are things like your Cranium, Sternum, Femur, ulna, radius, tibia and your fibula. The biggest bone in your body is the femur, the smallest bone in your body is your stapes which is one of 3 little bones in your ear.

The axial skeleton is made up of the bones that are more for protection and support. For example bones like the Cranium which provides protection to the brain. A sporting example of this is when you header a ball in football it will not hurt as your cranium is hard and is protecting everything inside it. The Ribs provide protection of the vital organs in your body. A sporting example of this is when taking a big hit in a rugby game, the ribs ensure that no major damage is done to any of your organs. If a collision is bad enough you can brake ribs but at least your organs are then not touched resulting possibly in death. Another bone is the Femur which provides support for the upper body. An example of this is when running a marathon your femur supports your upper body from the pelvis up. Your vertebrae column most importantly provides support for your whole body as it ensures you can keep an upright posture for example when squatting.

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Your appendicular skeleton is made up of bones and the shoulder girdle along with the hip girdle that are more for movement. For example bones like the ulna and radius which provide movement in your arm from the elbow joint, a sporting example of this is when bowling in a game of cricket. Also the tibia and fibula which provide movement in the lower leg, a sporting example of this is when performing a roundhouse kick in karate. The shoulder girdle also makes up the appendicular skeleton. A Sporting example of this is when holding a bar in a front squat you are able to rest the bar on the clavicle. Also the hip girdle makes up the appendicular skeleton. The hip girdle is made up of 3 bones which are the hip bones, sacrum and the coccyx. They allow movement at the hips, an example of this is when having to land in the finishing position after performing a summersault in gymnastics.

Long bones are found in your limbs and they are a cylindrical shape. They are also longer than what they are width wise, Examples of these bones are the Femur and tibia which are found in your legs and then your Humorous and phalanges which are found in your arms, Hands and feet. Examples of when the long bones in your legs are being used is when performing a high jump at the Olympics. An example of when you are using the bones in your arms is when swing to hit a ball in tennis and also having to hold the racket to perform the shot. Your phalanges in your feet are used when going on to your tip toes in ballet.

Short bones are cubed shaped and make up your Tarsals and Carpals in your ankle and wrists. They provide protection and stability at those areas which mean they are a part of the axial skeleton. Sporting examples of these are when performing a ball roll in a football game (Tarsals). Also, when performing a serve in tennis .

Flat bones are the bones in which aren’t actually flat but are really smooth. Your flat bones include the sternum, Cranium, pelvis, scapula and ribs. Some sporting examples of when you are using these flat bones are when performing a front squat and you have to hold you bar on your scapula for support. Also, when your chest the ball in the football game using your sternum to bring the ball down on to your feet. Furthermore, when having to header the ball away or towards goal.

Irregular bones are bones in which have varied shapes and sizes and are a weird type of bone you can’t really classify. Examples of your irregular bones would be the vertebrae column and the bones in your face like the mandible, maxilla and vomer bones. Sporting examples for some irregular bones are things like when having to perform a high jump and you bend your vertebrae as you go over the bar.

Sesamoid bones are within your tendons and they aid to make movement in the joint easier. They also resist friction and compression; an example of a sesamoid bone is the patella which is also known as the knee cap. This is in the tendons in the knee which is a god example of how sesamoid bones are often found in parts of the body when a tendon passes on a joint like the patella does the knee joint. A sporting example of the patella being used is when performing a knee in a mixed martial arts fight.

Support is when your bones in the body support other parts and when they allow you to keep an upright position. For example, your femur supports the pelvis and your upper body, this links to the appendicular skeleton as your femur provides movement of the legs. A sporting example of this is when scrummaging in rugby and you must extend your legs. Also, all the power comes from the upper when driving in a scrum. Another example of support is the vertebrae column and its role are to support the shoulder girdle followed by your arms. A sporting example of this is when doing a handstand in gymnastics and your ulna and radius are supporting the rest of your body.

Protection is the role of the bones in your body providing protection for collisions and knocks or also to protect your organs. For example, your cranium protects the brain. A sporting example of this is when you take a high tackle in rugby and it is directly to the head. Another example of protection is your ribs as they protect your vital organs like your lungs and heart. As porting example of this is when you take a kick is the ribs in an MMA fight.

Osteoblasts are the cells that form the bone. The word is almost split up into two as the ‘os’ means the bone and ‘blast’ means the cell is not fully developed. The osteoblast is firs seen in the middle of the diaphysis; this is the centre of ossification. Their role is to cover themselves in calcium and phosphate ions which come from the blood. During this process, the osteoblasts get counteracted by the osteoclasts, the role of the osteoclast cells is to help eat away old bone.

Once the Blood vessels fill the calcified cartilage, a cavity starts to assemble after the bone has taken the place of the cartilage. Once the osteoblast has submerged in the lacuna of the bone matrix, it then becomes an osteocyte.

When an individual is born some of the diaphysis consists of bone, also bone starts to appear in the epiphysis. This is known as the secondary centre of ossification. On the outside periosteal ossification still goes on.

The two bones at the diaphysis and the epiphysis get separated by a disc of cartilage called the epiphyseal disc or the growth disc. This can only take place where an increase in the length of the bone can occur. For example, when a young individual grows, the length of their long bone increases. This can only take place at the epiphyseal discs.

Once the bone growth has come to an end, the bony diaphysis is joined with the epiphysis. After that the line of fusion is marked by a layer of bone which is the epiphyseal plate. The fusion occurs at a variation of ages, but long bones usually stop growing in late teenage years.

Leverage is the force applied by one or other bones. The longer your bones are the more force it can apply. For example, your humorous can apply more force than your phalanges. When tightening a nut you can’t get it that tight by just using your hands. On the other hand, if you use a spanner you can apply more force to it by using your humorous, radius and ulna bones. When running the taller person would be able to apply more force generally because they have longer levers in this case femur, tibia and fibula bones. A sporting example of this would be Usain bolt when he runs a race, he does not have a very quick start, but his levers are long so when he gets into a rhythm his strides widen and he gets quicker.n

Certain bones in the skeletal system contain red bone marrow. This bone marrow produces red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Examples of theses bones would be the pelvis, sternum, vertebrae and clavicle. Red blood cells are vital to us as the carry oxygen around our body allowing us to exercise. For example, when running long distances, the red blood cells allow us to keep working at higher intensities.

Bones in our body are made of minerals, therefor act as a storage for the calcium and phosphorus. If the body however requires other functions, there minerals can be given up. The more calcium we consume in our food and drinks for example yogurts and milk, the stronger they make our bones and the less likely we are to fracture our bones. Examples of calcium consumption are that elite athletes eat very strictly and most probably consume high amounts of calcium which allows them to restrain from fracturing bones during training. This could also mean during games where having bones that are less likely to brake means that you can perform more intense lifts for example when competing in a world’s strongest man competition. Compared to a person who doesn’t do much exercise at all who would most likely be less strict on what they consume. This person would be more vulnerable to fracturing bones as their bones are weaker.

Our bones provide attachment for muscles via tendons. For example, in your upper body you have the tricep and the bicep attached to the radius bone. A sporting example of when using these would be when doing dumbbell curls. When you lift the weight your bicep contracts and your tricep relaxes, during the eccentric phase the tricep contracts and the bicep becomes more relaxed. in your lower body you have the hamstring and muscle attached the ischium and the fibula bones. Your quadricep muscle attached to the tibia and femur bones. Sporting examples of these would be when kicking a ball and drawing your leg back would be when your hamstring is contracting and your quadricep is relaxing and then when kicking the ball following through would be when your quadricep is contracting and your hamstring relaxes. 

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