Please note! This essay has been submitted by a student.
Blood pressure is pressure of passing the blood against walls of blood vessels and it’s generally measured in brachial artery of the arm. Hypertension simply defined as a high blood pressure than normal range. Normal range of blood pressure is 120/80 mm of hg. Where 120 is systolic pressure while 80 is diastolic pressure. If anyone cross the limit 140/90 mm of hg, then it’s consider hypertensive patient. Hypertension may lead to heart attack, heart failure or stroke. You may have high blood pressure without any sign or symptoms. Many people may develop serious problem without knowing any sign or symptoms of this disease. Therefore hypertension called as “serious killer”.
Historical background of hypertension record as before 2600 B.C. At that time hypertension was mention as “hard pulse disease”. Hippocrates was a first person who recommend the treatment for this disease. First treatment of the disease was leeching or phlebotomy and acupuncture. In 1905 N.C Korotkoff discover the method of auscultation of brachial artery, using sphygmomanometer. Which is widely used nowadays. Before 50 years ago hypertension was consider as untreatable or uncured disease. In late 50s thiazide diuretics was introduce. It was consider as biggest success in treatment of this disease.
Canadian community health survey, 2013 showed that prevalence of hypertension among different age group of Canadian population. According to the bar graph chance of hypertension is increased with increased age of life. Beside this data reveal the information about man and woman doesn’t show big different. Both have almost equal chance of hypertension.
High alcohol intake, tobacco use, drug use (cocaine, ecstasy, anabolic steroids), emotional stress, diet pill use, oral contraceptives, high intake of sodium diet, family history of hypertension(hereditary),low dietary intake of calcium, potassium, and magnesium, physical inactivity and so on.
Primarily hypertension is asymptomatic, only increase blood pressure is a sign. Therefore it is called silent killer disease. Below diagram indicate signs of secondary hypertension like diabetes, renal failure, vascular related problems while signs of essential hypertension include over weight or obesity and edema or inflammation of lower extremities However, you may notice headache, dizziness, fainting, and Chest pain, blurred vision, bleeding from nose, fatigue and sleepiness, tinnitus or ringing in the ears. Profuse sweating. Causes of hypertension includes chronic kidney disease, arterial disease, throid diease (goiter), sleep apnea birth control pills, pregnancy, hormone therapy, genes, drugs and alcohol, idiopathic (essenti al hypertension).
Because of this is asymptomatic disease, physician will first ask past medical history and will evaluate physical examination. Furthermore physician also measure patient’s blood pressure using sphygmomanometer. However one single high reading doesn’t mean that patient have a hypertension. Physician will measure patient blood pressure at different times and during different interval, after 5 minute of rest or after exercise and so on. Beside this physician also recommend for urine test, blood test, cholesterol test, ECG (electrocardiogram) test for evaluate heart electric activity.
Anyone may develop high blood pressure. However age, ethnicity or race, overweight, gender, uneven life style habits, family history of high blood pressure. Beside this using tobacco or drinking alcohol may also increase with high blood pressure. Such chronic condition also increase the risk of high blood pressure. Such as kidney disease, diabetes and sleep apnea.
Uncontrolled high blood pressure lead to stroke by damaging and weakening brains blood vessels, causing them to narrow, rupture or leak. High BP also responsible for blood clot to form in the arteries followed by potentially stroke. Beside this hypertension lead to the coronary artery disease. Coronary artery disease affect the reduce blood supply to the heart muscle ultimately lead to the stroke.
High blood pressure can damage health in many ways. It has deep effect on patient’s daily life. Like patient suffering with memory and understanding could be early sign of high blood pressure. Arrhythmias is a sign of blockage in artery in the heart. Sometime patient have complaint about chest pain. It may due to the reduced blood flow to the heart. Beside this dementia, aneurism, heart failure, kidney damage, sometimes erectile function, blood clot, osteoporosis are generally seen with hypertensive patient.
First line of cure of the disease is modification of life style. It includes physical exercise, weight reduction, stress management and so on. As per the general physician overview about hypertensive patient should walk at least 30-60 minute of walking or jogging or swimming or any type of dynamic exercise. Patient have limited use of alcohol and tobacco use. Reduce the consumption of high sodium intake diet and it should be restricted with 2000 mg per day. Reduce stress also help to control the hypertension. If primary therapy is not working than some drugs are recommend for the condition. Mostly drugs of ACE Inhibitors (lisinopril, enalapril, and fosinopril,). ACE Inhibitors works on all age group of people and also lower both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Calcium Channel Blocker (amlodipine) is another group of drug which use for hypertension treatment. Beside this Beta Blockers (metoprolol, carvedilol, atenolol,) and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs) are line of medicine. If medication is not controlled the hypertension than extra medication is advice in this cases. In hypertensive crisis case like hypertensive urgency (>180/120 mm of hg) or hypertensive emergency (180/120 mm of hg + chance of organ damage) case require special care than regular hypertension. In this cases intensifying antihypertensive therapy required. Beside this treatment of anxiety must be given. Follow up is required in all cases. Moreover counselling the patient also cover under treatment.
As per the general information if the patient is not covered under the health insurance than he or she have to pay between $ 740 and $1200 or more with average cost of doctor visit $454 and medication coast around $404. However the cost of treatment is ceases with increase number of year. Like the second year cost will around $575 and on third year it goes further down around $420 per year.
At the end I conclude that I choose this topic because it’s one of the most common abnormal condition and preventable causes of premature morbidity and mortality in the world which I notice now a days. Beside this I was curious about how the condition affect the human body and his or her daily life style. During research I found some interesting fact of hypertension like it is a silent killer, no one can predict directly without measuring blood pressure at primary stage. Beside this I also found hypertension may lead to such lethal disease like ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, premature death and so on. Mostly I used internet to finding such thing. I have question regarding the topic is it covered under medical necessary term or not?? Is it cover under any health benefit or not.