During the Progressive Era, it was filled with labor activists, women organizations, and more. The main idea of the Progressive movement was to eliminate the corruption of the government. But many progressives feel like their freedom was being lost as work increased. Most felt like there should be a new definition of freedom that touches on social and economic realities. Industrial freedom is an idea by the workers and employees. Workers wanted the freedom to form unions to argue for their rights and would give them the role of economic decision-making rather than wages and working conditions. They wanted a rise in union groups. Progressives did not support the idea of Taylorism or “scientific management” by Frederick W. Taylor. Scientific management was an increase in productions and products and controlling costs and work practices. Therefore, skilled workers and progressives had to obey the rules and be compliant with work, while having no freedom of voice or expression. Taylorism was basically a disturbance on their traditional work process. Workers thought that fighting for the freedom that is imaged in the United States would become reality. For example, they didn’t even have the first amendment fully because their freedom had boundaries. And apparently the “American Standard of Living” there is a desire for consumer goods that led many workers to join unions and demand higher wages.
After World War I, the Espionage Act of 1917 was passed on June 15, 1917. The purpose of this act was to make it illegal to write or speak anything critical of American involvement in the war. Any anti-war activities or false statements that can possibly harm military success will resolve into a punishment of fines or imprisonment. For example, Eugene V. Debs was convicted under the Espionage Act due to delivering an anti-war speech and was sentenced to 10 years in prison. The Sedition Act of 1918 was basically an extension of the Espionage Act of 1917 to reach a wider spectrum of possible offenses. The purpose of this act was to prohibit many more types of speeches such as any disloyal, abusive, etc language including the U.S. government. To “willfully utter, print, write, or publish any disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language about the form of the Government of the United States” was illegal. Therefore, patriotism in this case is support for the war, and “Un-American” is anti-war sentiment.
The Harlem Renaissance began roughly around the 1920s after World War I but ended around the 1930s, beginning of the Great Depression. This African American movement was based in Harlem, a suburb of New York City. Harlem had a high population of African Americans therefore, the African American culture was known. The Harlem Renaissance is also known as the “New Negro” movement. The renaissance included African American culture, such as: art, dance, music, literature, poetry, and more. This gave a chance for African Americans to show what they can do and what they’re interested in. Most Americans during this time had viewed African Americans as slaves, but this showed that they can be more and do more. This time had created a big impact in the American culture. This is very significant and a coincidence because Americans started to recognize how African Americans struggle, understand the culture, and have a passion for the things they do. The Harlem Renaissance had set an expectation for the Civil Rights Movement.
Is a discriminatory real estate practice that prevents minority groups to obtain money to purchase homes or property in white neighborhoods. The practice denies service, can raise prices based on the racial or ethnic groups in the area. The term “redlining” refers to another practice but of marking a red line on a map to see the areas where banks would not invest in. This is segregation and discrimination against a group of people. For example, if a residential area is filled with more Black people then their bank and services might increase. Redlining is against the law, but that doesn’t seem to stop violators. Today, redlining is officially illegal. The practice doesn’t really benefit, but it definitely is a racist illegal act to do. There is the Fair Housing Act that is part of the Civil Rights Act of 1968, to prohibit discrimination against neighbors based on their race.
Fascism is, “an authoritarian form of rule that allows for one ruling party, encourages nationalism, strict social and economic control of the nation, and regularly uses violence as a means to control and suppress.” Fascism involves with authorization and it is a way of running a country using dictatorship to focus on doing good things that will benefit the country. It sometimes emphasizes nationalism and racism. They are against democracy because of the one-party dictatorship. They basically believe that democracies are weak and so that the people need to be controlled. Benito Mussolini founded a group involved with fascism in 1919 called the National Fascist Party. Mussolini also ruled the country as a Prime Minister. Since Mussolini perfected fascism, it inspired Adolf Hitler, therefore, he joined together and became a part of the Axis Powers. But Adolf Hitler created a government, the Nazi’s, using fascism and it was based on undemocratic ideas and powers. This was used to unite Germany around the 1930s. The Nazi party was so fundamental that it changed modern Europe. Fascism spread throughout Europe fast because of the duo Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini because they would invade many countries and would make them become fascist. Even though in this case, fascism is in Italy and Germany, it is not only restricted in these two countries, but it is a big role.
Nsc- 68 was a report issued by the U.S. National Security Council in 1950. This report has become one of the most classic historical documents of the Cold War era. This document was important because it had a strategy that was successful, it shaped the government for years, and this document helped understand the Cold War more. This foundation for the government helped America’s foreign policy for a while. It was a “internal government manifesto declaring a global crusade against communism.” The idea was to protect the world from communism and the Soviet Union. This document was needed to save everyone from communism and the Soviet Union since they invaded many countries, they could not expand any more further and control.
Consumerism is a theory or belief that the wellbeing and happiness depends on mostly the level of a person consumption. Buying more is acquainted with success, and that consumption of material goods benefits economic growth. Things were being bought because of luxury not as a necessity in life. This is significant because the American definition of freedom is economic dependence and participation. During the 1950s, consumerism replaced economic dependence and democratic participation. Americans believe they have to go into debt to live a consumerism lifestyle. Technology played a big role in this time because things would be promoted for Americans to buy. For example, television spreaded the middle class life and spreaded consumerism even more. It was an “essential” to the American life and freedom to have a TV in the house. It changed the house’s setting, such as, everyone eating in the living room around the TV to watch. Also buying a car seemed to be an essential to an American for freedom. A TV, home, and car, became a consumer necessity in every family’s life to touch on freedom. Americans thought what they bought is defined as who they were. Consumerism had a big impact on Americans, they were really convinced and affected to buy everything “good” for their life.
The Chicano Movement from the 1960s were also known as, the Chicano Civil Rights Movement. This movement is equivalent to the Civil Rights Movement. The purpose of the movement was to get the basic rights for the Chicanos since it wasn’t given all the time. Comparing to a white American, they have so much that a Mexican American did not get the same in America. This was an attack on race, but we’re all humans and people, race shouldn’t play a role in this. Education, health benefits, and more were not met with expectations. For example, the blowout of the Chicano movement spread that in 1968, there was a walk-out or march-out. Almost but about 10,000 Chicano and Chicana students walked out of five Los Angeles High schools. This was a protest and walk-out about how Chicano students were not getting the same education benefits as other students were in the East Los Angeles schools. Housing, employment, education, their civil rights, and culture were all disrespected and made unfair for Chicanos. This movement was mostly to stand up for the Chicanos. They are like any other group, they deserve to be treated with respect and to stop being mistreated and discriminated because they should get what they want and need. This is important since it brought awareness to how unfair things are for this specific race, and how there’s so much injustice.
Proposition 13 is also known as the “tax revolt.” It was passed in 1978 by California voters approved to reduce property tax revenue, therefore, decreasing revenue for the government. This seemed to work well for a while, but population grew so there wasn’t enough money to fund for schools, communities, etc. Limited property taxes because of proposition 13 causes the government not to have enough for school funds which is unfortunate that those two are attached together in this proposition. An example of how this affects us today: If a person buys a house or property, they are going to be taxed full value or even more. They are basically paying for the tax of the loss of property tax revenue. For someone who already owns a house or property, they are taxed way lower than the full value or even the property’s actual value because they have owned the place for years. But this keeps old home owners and elders from getting kicked out of their homes if the area they are in becomes popular. This proposition is a good example of how the citizens, not the politicians, were the ultimate voters and decision-makers. Proposition 13 seems to be half and half with good and bad.
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