Please note! This essay has been submitted by a student.
India is the second highest populated country of the world. It’s having 1.32 billion people; this is increased by almost 182.5 million since last decade. This population growth brings too many challenges related to management of environment such as industrialization, changing lifestyle. By introduction of new technologies many problems have been solved as well as many issues are emerged such as waste management. Every city and town are messed up with left garbage in open and it’s become very difficult to manage these garbage, According to the report of world bank, 2012, waste generation rate is about 1.2 kg/capita/day that is 1.3 billion tones/year. 10 years ago, this was about 0.64 kg/capita/day that is 0.68 billion tones/year. By the year 2025, it will be the 2.2 billion tones/year.
According to requirement and availability of services, this is also requiring managing of garbage from the industries itself located in the Urban areas. This impact on the environment, air, water, pollution and invites to many disease.so, it become the priority of the authorities to improve their services and to continuously monitor, collect and dispose this garbage cost effectively, and satisfactory manner in terms of environmentally and socially.
The smart city concept integrates information and communication technology ( ICT ), and various physical devices connected to the network (the Internet of things or IoT ) to optimize the efficiency of city operations and services and connect to citizens. Smart city technology allows city officials to interact directly with both community and city infrastructure and to monitor what is happening in the city and how the city is evolving
Human Centered Inclusive Design: User interface and application to be designed in such a way that it is accessible, easier to use and understood by all.
Multichannel Platform: Applications should be accessible to stakeholders over multiple channels like mobile, web, phone, kiosk etc.
Open Standard Based Design: o ensure standardization, inter-operability, flexibility to move for one vendor to another and reduce CO.
Technology & Vendor Agnostic: Solution which is technology and vendor agnostic and helps in achieving cost effectiveness.
Service Oriented Design: ensures technology independent, reusability and interoperability in the long term.
Preparedness for failure: Architecture should be designed to tolerate failure and have recovery tools and/or processes defined
Fit for purpose, Unique and reusable: Each capability should be implemented only once without duplication. Web Services/Interfaces should to expose to ensure reusability/integration.
Integrated Approach: Integrate planning, execution & monitoring of applications & systems to ensure the wheel is not reinvented, solutions are not over-engineered and ownership is clear.
The blooming and distribution of smart city duties can be ticklish, especially when there are no particular standard to be follow at the blooming stge. The necessity of the set-up is for better understanding or to make ease of blooming and distribution process. Before implementation of frame work the required components are:
Physical Infrastructure: Components/ Hardware are required that is, Bins, rucks, Pipes, Dumps, Features, Recycling, Processing, Bins Location, Bins types.
IoT Technology: IoT technology require RFID, NSF, Sensors, WSN, Actuators, GPS, Cameras.
Software Analytics: It require GIS, DSS, Scheduling, Routing.
This deals with the precise explanation of the suggested set-up, its characteristics and performance. We made use of documents explanation to keep record of our development set up periodically. The main objective of this research is a blooming set up for the city duties. So that this can be adopted by any of metropolis. This is dynamic set-up; this is already mentioned at the starting of this thesis. So then this set-up can be easily apply to any of the metropolis.
For our proof of concept metropolis duty, we chose waste management; this is a duty that is needed all over. There should be strict laws for dumping garbage areas. People should not allow dumping their garbage except the dumping garbage area if one area is full to capacity then required to find another one.
This system consists of four major components:-
Existent world:- The existent world illustrates the metropolis reprocess-bins with sensors. It also illustrates every other operation on the reprocess-bins. eg:- Garbage collection vans.
SSC:- This is a system that stores the data from the existent world and provide interface in real time and non-real time.
Simulator:- Simulator comprises of the existent world sensors (reprocess garbage bins, their specifications, route grid, route mesh, conveyance for the garbage collection. It is a model of SSC core system. Like route selection according to the data that is provided by sensors. This system helps in to change or correction in existent system.
Next section describe the each module of the system in detail.
Management system: management system handles all the control of the service and use the SSC for its proper functioning. The functions are defined as follows:
Management system is fully dependent system because it requires them to access the real time data. It collects the waste by the collection trucks by sensing data from the sensors bins. Management system also provides some administrative functions for example addition of new sensors for recycling of stations, management of sensors, managing the general settings, so these settings can be considered for waste collection. A function named as triggering system can also be used as an alternative for scheduling the waste management. So the system can define the eligibility for the waste collection at the time when required such as when bin is full. We define 3 parameters for checking the eligibility:
For verification of the idea, we consider waste reuse administration framework in the city. Our framework giving information from receptacle or holders furnished with sensors situated at different areas of the city to control the status of the canister or compartment in deference to amount of waste it contains and level waste in containers or holders. Introduce the sensor on the highest point of the canisters or compartments. The continuous information is put away and made realistic through open defined interface for the city and uncommon organizations. The data is utilized to give esteem additional administration, which wants to benefit the nationals and the city and additionally squander administration frameworks.