Please note! This essay has been submitted by a student.
Monroe Doctrine was initially given by the James Monroe the Fifth President of US. On 2nd December 1823 James Monroe addresses his last speech while giving message to European States. Basically James Monroe told to the crowns of Europe to “stay out of the America”, He said “as far as I am concern the era of colonization is over, stop giving us the side eye and stop looking at maps to decide where you may place a colony next, No more European colonization in America, what’s more don’t interfere, the America’s are the US concerns, so we don’t want the powers of Europe to meddle in any of the affairs of North America or South America, you can keep your system (Monarchy) out of the America’s, this is the Hemisphere of Democracy”.
So in 1823 US was not in world power, they could be at best at minor power even in the America. US is not the major world Military Power nor Navy Power, because at this time these two were the main power to take over the world.
So in the response of US the European power didn’t focused on that and tries to fix the matches of Cricket with them, because to establish the power of Europe the US was no more than a little mosquito that buzzing around may be making a lot of noise bit annoying but it was pretty easy to watch. No matter how much noise US made the only thing that matter to the Great Powers of world was whether not the US could enforce the Monroe Doctrine, with which such a weak military presence they certainly could not. Nevertheless Monroe Doctrine become a key facet of American Foreign Policy throughout the19th century and into the 20th century. The justification of manifest destiny and will play major role in Foreign Policy of establishment.
In 1820 the time of bad years of Monarchy in Europe, one thing then Napoleonic Wars and French Revolution have been convincing the powers of Europe for several years. By 1815 the Revolution was more less finish and Monarchy of Europe has been reinstated but the revolutionary fever coming from French Revolution coming also from the American Revolution, which has started to spread and movements for Independence are now taking hold in South America, so they cut the Democracy bug.
People in US shares its Southern borders, saying excellent work picking up Democracy, breaking away from old fashion Monarchical and Tyrannical Europe. We are totally on your side, but it’s easier to make an Independent movement when the whom country is distracted with another war of Napoleonic wars. Once the Napoleonic wars are over the Monarchy of Europe start saying, Spain is in control of these nations. Now Spain has the time and energy to consider or may be to putting down these Revolutions, so they have the man power. US and UK were very much concern that the Monarchy of continent of France, Spain might join together and try to put down all these Revolutions. According to the market of that time early American colonial society the economic system was known as Mercantilism (colonies try to enrich the other countries) So all trades goes through the home country and home country make sure that the colony country is not trading with any other International country, because they want to be the one source enriched by the natural resource of the colony. So the Venezuela and Argentina revolt from Spain, it means that there markets are now opened up to US and UK. So US and UK are not either to see these new nations be return each other colonial status because the Mercantilism, they are not going to be able to trade with them anymore. So British Secretary George Kenning approach the American Secretary of state John Quincy Adams who don’t make we make a joint a proclamation between US and Great Britain saying that the power of Europe should not interfere in the new world, the John Quincy state that “I am not sure if I like you British fox” for remember that war of 1812 had not taken place too long before ends the US was not quite to ready to be friends with UK yet and they were little bit afraid that if US made joint declaration with England that would seem like a flee on the back of Rottweiler saying that don’t mess with us or will bite you”, so they were not ready to make joint declaration and this idea John Quincy Adams share it with James Monroe, so at this time the movement of Nationalism in US and they win the war of 1812 and they try to make new Nationalist redirects in US, so after that James Monroe stood against the European power and also against the Russia, because Russia was territorial claiming about some place in Canada. So James Monroe in 1823 make the announcement of Monroe Doctrine. He says no more colonization and interference in general so don’t try to turn these new republics back in new colonies under the rules of Monarchy. Because US was trying to make Regional Hegemonic power.
China is trying to develop its own Monroe Doctrine, China is trying to do the same thing like of US in his region. China is trying to signal primarily US but also to places like Russia and Europe that Asia is China’s region of influence that is rightful place to say that we would dictate the terms of Security and Prosperity of Asia. China wants the similar situation like of US they want to expel any primary foreign influence in the region most notably US and China wants to become regional Hegemony of Asia.
If China wants to become Regional Hegemony, it would do everything it can to maximize its power to reduce tensions in the region. China can assert its power it can maintain and it can enforce its security in region.
So it wants to expel the influences of US by pushing the US out alienating some of the alliances or if it get close to China. China does this mostly through the economic state craft because it has such a massive market a big trading power that other states will naturally trying to access the China market.
There are lot of tensions in SCS (South China Seas), which is among having regal rights of Spratly Islands and Parcels Islands. There are many stake holders for those Islands and everyone claims to them. The thing behind that claim is, they are rich in national resources, so they can be beneficial for any country. China has two reasons to claim these Islands as well, first is natural resources and second is to get most of the area in South China Sea to have full command in South region. It resembles with the expansion of US after Monroe Doctrine but the thing which in different here is the trade joint with the world through their Naval route. If China got control over South and East China sea they world would get into China’s footstep but China still have the tendency to overcome its problems with other countries through trade as China is second largest economy in the world and soon it will pass US.
On the other hand China had an eye on CARs (Central Asian Republicans) as well because of their natural resources and future of the world. The speed of Chinas growth is based upon its Industrialization and tools of trade and their neutrality plays the major role in Chinas success. CARs had very good relations and China after their inception as they had signed many MOUs and finish them successfully, being open to their interests they are very clear to their visions and goals. Being the part of Communist countries CARs known the pro’s and corns of a communist and socialist republic, so they are very comfortable with them.
The 4th President of US James Monroe addresses its last speech to Congress, while stated that European Power stay away of our states sovereignty, which we may also don’t interfere in your states sovereignty. As we are not colony anymore. By that time the Monarchical system of European Power were trying to take control of the region to enhance its stability by imposing its relation with other neighborhood states, and then acquiring its personnel interests by exploiting their resources and not giving any of benefit to them.
Since the inception China also had difficulties through they were in friend with USSR but they also had border issue with them. After Korean War China become neutral towards politics and that neutrality paid them very well. They become Nuclear Power in 1966 and Mao Zedong had his Revolutionary ideas and techniques to take China on whole new level. China get Revolutionized and Industrialized and they become the biggest Industry for electronic, goods etc. In 1949 by that time China was weaker than the US of Monroe Regime but they hold their selves up and look their time from to away himself from world politics. By the 90s China become necessity for world for their cheap labor and become the central hub of world trade.
But the difference between China and Monroe Doctrine is the China win the countries through trade and they are neutral as the political grounds. They just see their interests with other country and also protect their interest. That’s the only reason they have good relations with every country because they are helping their economies to grow and their GDP gets superior.
On the other hand if we see Monroe Doctrine, US after Monroe become ally with the other super power and they just follow the rule of “Might is Right”. China goes global through trade and they are working new power along with the third world countries which needs to develop. China wants to acquire or expand their costal territory and hold as much as they can to grow their region in their continent and Africa.