The goals of the millennium were established following the millennium summit of the United Nations in 2000. The Millennium Development Goals were developed as a roadmap for the implementation of the Millennium Declaration. These development goals have been the most successful global anti-poverty push in history. These goals were made to improve the quality of life throughout the world. There are eight very specific goals that were developed. Each goal contains more specific, and easier to obtain “targets” in order to eventually achieve the larger goal. The first Millennium Development Goal (MDG) is to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger. Within this fist goal, there are two separate targets. The second Millennium Development Goal is to achieve universal primary education. The third one is to promote gender equality and empower women. Reducing child mortality is the fourth MDG. The fifth MDG goal is to improve maternal health. To combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases, is the sixth MDG goal. This goal contains 3 targets within it, which includes; target number one, “Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS,” target number 2, “Achieve by 2010, universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it,” and target number 3, “Have halted and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases.” The seventh goal is to ensure environmental sustainability. This goal contains four specific targets that include; “Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs and reverse the loss of environmental resources,” which is the first target, “Reduce biodiversity loss, achieving, by 2010, a significant reduction in the rate of loss,” which is the second target, “Halve by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation,” which is the third target, and “By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers,” which concludes the targets with the fourth one. To wrap up the Millennium Development Goals is the eighth goal, to develop a global partnership for development. This goal is grouped with 5 specific targets including; the first one, “Develop further an open, rule based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system,” the second one, “Address the special needs of the least developed countries, landlocked developing countries, and small island developing states,” the third one, “Deal comprehensively with developing countries’ debt,” and the fourth one, “In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications.”
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Within the 2013 Goals of the Millennium Report, the progress and achievements, for each goal, made by the developing countries are discussed. According to the reports for the first goal, eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, much progress has been made, but there is still a lot that needs to be accomplished. As for the first target of this goal that states, “Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than $1 a day,” developing countries have been very successful. According to this report, this first target has already been met. The second target for this MDG declares, “Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people.” The report concludes that the slowing of economic growth in 2012 lead to continued job loses, with young people being largely impacted from the crisis. This goal so far has helped decline the number of workers living in extreme poverty over the past decade by 294 million, although still leaving 384 million below the threshold classified as the ‘working poor’.
The reports for the second goal to achieve universal primary education show that progress has been made, but the speed of improvement needs to be increased if the goal will be able to be made. “Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling,” is the only target that is stated for this goal. The report says that if the current trends for this target continue, then the world will not meet the goal of universal primary education. Although the progress is not as quick as desired, there have been some significant drops in the number of children out of school. In 2000 there were 102 million children of primary school age were out of school and by 2011, the number had dropped to 57 million children. The report also showed studies on the factors that keep children out of school. It was found that poverty, gender, and place of residence all play a role in keeping children out of schools.
Within the report for the third goal, promote gender equality and empower women, there are some positive and also some negative reports. Within this goal, there is one target that states, “Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education no later than 2015.” The reports shows steady progress toward equal access of girls and boys to education, but more action is needed in many specific countries. At higher levels of education, women begin to gain more equality. Although they are becoming more involved in the work force, they are still limited in the labor market in some regions and not in all areas of work. Women tend to hold less secure jobs with fewer social benefits than men.
Within the report for the fourth goal, reduce child mortality, it states that there have been large improvements, but they need to increase by at least double in order to meet the goal by 2015. “Reduce by two thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under 5 mortality rate.” is the target for this goal. In efforts to meet this goal, worldwide, the mortality rate for children younger than five have dropped by 41 percent from 87 deaths per 1,000 live births in 1990 to 51 in 2001. This means that since 1990, the child mortality rate has dropped by 41% making the number drop to a still very large number of less than 14,000 children dying each day. Although there have been such large gains in this area, statistics show that there were still 6.9 million children under the age of five that died in 2011, mostly from preventable diseases. This means that despite this progress, the progress needs to speed up in order to meet the goal by 2015.
The reports of the fifth goalimprove maternal health; show that the maternal mortality has declined by nearly half since 1990. This goal contains two different targets. The first target states, “Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio,” For this goal, there has been a lot of improvements, but the reports show that there are nearly 50 million babies worldwide that are delivered without skilled care. In order to meet this goal by 2015, there needs to be more access to assistance of a skilled and supported attendant at the time of birth, which can reduce the risk of preventable death or disability. The second target states, “Achieve, by 2015, universal access to reproductive health.” Universal access to this health care during pregnancy can save many lives. The downfall is that only half of women in developing countries receive the recommended amount of care. Although the reports show that in developing regions, coverage of antenatal care increased from 63% to 81% from 1190 to 2011, not enough progress has been made to meet the goal. Developing countries need to continue to improve the access to education and health care facilities with skilled, good quality care.
Within the report, for the Millennium Development Goals, the social situation is discussed in many different developing geographical areas. Within the geographical areas Sub-Saharan Africa was discussed. This region has not been very successful in achieving progress toward the goals. This region is home to ¼ of the overweight children in the world. In this region, the poverty rate rose from 290 million in 1990 to 414 million in 2010, making Sub-Saharan Africa home to more than 1/3 of people worldwide who are destitute. This region is also home to more than ½ of out-of-school children worldwide. The rate of change for equal access to education for boys and girls is this area is much slower than any other developing country. The number of children that die in this region before age 5 is more than 16 times the average for developing regions. Overall, this region is in a very bad social situation, and needs to make more effort in order to better the quality of life for the people of this area.
The report also discusses the social situation of the developing region of Southern Asia. The report estimated that by 2015 this region would be home to about 40% of the developing world population in extreme poverty. In this report, this region is slow in meeting the target of halving the number of people who suffer from hunger. Also the number reduced of children out of school can be can be contributed to this region. This number fell from 38 million in 2000 to 12 million in 2011. This region also was among one of the greatest increases in literacy with rates starting at 60% in 1990 and raising to 81% in 2011. This region has also reduced the under five-morality rate by about 47%. This region also shows that 36% of pregnant women received at least 4 antenatal care visits during their latest pregnancy.
The developing region of Eastern Asia was also discussed. This region showed some great improvements, but still need to make more progress in others. This is the only developing region where girls have greater access to primary school than boys. This region is also one of the only regions that has met the target of child survival. Eastern Asia has made the most rapid progress in reducing mortality in children under 5 and the maternal morality has declined by about 2/3. This region already had health car during pregnancy coverage rates that ranged from 90% to 100% before the goals were developed. This region has a big downfall in the large number of people infected with HIV. This region also showed the largest gains in access to drinking water and achieved some of the largest decrease in percentage of slum dwellers.
Within these developing regions, Northern Africa was discussed. This region showed the greatest increase in youth literacy rates between 1990 and 2011 from 68% to 89%. This region also met the target for improvements of child survival. This rate has declined by around 2/3. This region also shows relatively high levels of contraceptive use and skilled attendance at birth.
Included in the regions discussed in the report for the Millennium development goals, Latin America and The Caribbean were also discussed. In this region, progress has been relatively swift in the reduction of hunger among these individuals. Also in this area, parity in the number of women and men holding wage-earning jobs has been nearly achieved. Their number or rate of under five mortality has been reduced by more than 50%. This region has already achieved the goal of the good quality care coverage with rates of 90% or more. This region also leads the way in conservation of its land and coasts with 21.3% of terrestrial areas and 15.4% of marine areas under protection. Overall, all the developing regions have made progress in achieving the goals, but in order to meet them by 2015, the effort to achieve them needs to be greatly increased.
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