Incidence, Risk Factors and the Treatment Option Among Undergraduate Athletes in Colombo

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Routine physical activity elicits a number of health benefits, including a reduction in the risk of numerous chronic diseases and premature death (Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, 2010),.(Anon., n.d.).Elite athletes seem to gain additional health benefits of higher life expectancy and lower disease risk and admission rates compared to the general population.

However, they ride a higher risk of musculoskeletal disorders and long-term disability during or/and after the end of their training. The injuries occurred in training called as sports injuries. According to (Burt & Overpeck, 2001), 3.7 million people in USA attend emergency departments each year , with an injury related to sports and exercise. Even in Asia too, though statistical data was not available. Systematic injury surveillance was a prerequisite of effective protection for the health of the athletes. Epidemiological data helps to better plan and deliver athlete health care, and it is important to inform about what measures should take to prevent injury. Sports injury can happen due to extrinsic (external)factors and intrinsic(internal) factors.

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Intrinsic factors were individual biological and psychological factors. For instant age , gender , body composition (body weight, fat mass, bone mass density, anthropometry) health (history of previous injury , joint instability), physical fitness (muscle strength, joint rang of movement ), anatomy (alignment intercondylar notch width) skill level (sport specific technique , postural stability) . External factors are mainly related to the type of activity in the incident of injury and are not related to the person.

For instant protective equipment (helmet, knee guards), sport equipment, human factors (team mates, opponents), environment (weather , floor and turf type). We can divide human body parts into, Head, neck and brain , Vertebral column and spinal cord ,thorax, abdomen , hip and pelvic area, upper limb, lower limb, back. Even these body parts can basically divide into micro body parts which mainly involving for sports injuries. Head, neck and brain – Skull , skull bone , neck, face ,eyes , nose , mouth , brain Vertebral column and spinal cord -Vertebrae , muscles of the back , sacrum Upper limb – Upper limb bones, shoulder ,axilla, arm , elbow ,forearm hand , wrist Thorax -Thoracic bones , heart , lungs Abdomen – Abdominal wall and muscles and tissues Hip and pelvic area- Hip and pelvic bones , muscles , tissues and ligaments Lower limb – Lower limb bones, foot bones, ankle bones , gluteal region, thigh muscles, ligaments, and tissues , front of the thigh muscles, ligamnets ,tissues , hip joint muscles ,ligaments and tissues, knee, leg, ankle and foot

These areas are the most common regions that athlete gets injured . so it is important to understand the region and the type of injuries they get. Injuries can divide into muscle strains. It occurs when a muscle was overstretched and tears. Symptoms of strained muscles may include pain, swelling, weakness, and difficulty or inability to use muscles. The quadriceps, calves, hamstrings, groin, back and shoulder muscles are the most common muscle sites for strains.

A sprained occurs when the ligaments that support the joint become overstretched. Steppe wrong on an uneven surface or steppe in a way that twists or rolls the foot may lead to a sprain. Fractures mean, resulting in a break of bones. Fractures can occur when increasing activity, especially too quickly. The majority of stress fractures occur in the lower legs and feet. Women are more prone to stress fractures than men. Fractures cause pain with activity.

Concussion is a traumatic brain injury (TBI) that occurs when the brain accelerates rapidly within the skull. Direct impact on the head or body can cause concussion. Symptoms usually include headache, loss of consciousness, slurred speech, memory loss, lethargy, nausea, vomiting, etc.

Dislocation occurs between joints. specially, occurs when there is abnormal separation in the joint, where two or more bones meet. Dislocation is usually caused by a sudden trauma to the joint, such as an impact or fall. Dislocation of the joint can cause damage to the surrounding ligaments, tendons, muscles and nerves. The position can occur to any major part of the joint (shoulders, knees) or slightly (toes, fingers).

A wound is a relatively quick injury in which the skin is torn, cut or punctured or a blunt trauma causes a contusion. According to the type of the injury the treatment method and the rest period get changed .The most common treatment method is RICE which means rest , ice ,compression, and elevation. But in some cases this is not enough they have to seek other treatment methods such as home remedies, homeopathy, western medicine or physiotherapy.

A number of studies have made regarding the prevalence of sports injuries and risk factors for sports injury. Those researchers have identified the importance of knowing what were the musculoskeletal disorders and which factors contribute to increase the risk. There are studies done in worldwide as well as in Sri Lanka.

Sports injuries and ill-health episodes in the Cali 2013 world games, a research was carried out during the Cali world games 2013. This was a cross sectional study of injuries and ill-health episode suffered by competing athletes. 2824 athletes were participated. There were 88 injuries. Overall incidence 31.2 injuries per 1000 athletes or 3.1%. The injury rate for men 35.5/1000 and women 25.5/1000 athletes. Jiu- Jitsu -11.0%, roller inline hockey 10.4%,karate 10.2%, softball 9.5%, rugby sevens 8.3% and artistic roller skating 8.1% where the highest incidence of injuries occurred. Also, researchers showed that there were no statistically significant differences between sex in the global rate of injuries or by sport. Only 13 athletes (15%) were estimated to have no time loss from competition. Remaining 75 athletes (85%) head injuries that prevented them from training or competition. There were 63 (71%) injured athlete resulted an absence between 1-7 days, 12 athletes (14%) more than 7 days of absence from sports practice. The most common types of injuries were contusions 30.7%, overuse injuries 19.3%, wounds 15.9%, fractures 11.3% and others were hand, head, knee injuries.

Research based on patient who participated in sports medicine clinics in the united states and Canada. Age between 6 and 18 years old patients were offered the survey. Overall, 360 questionnaires were completed. The findings of this research were otherwise not fatigue related injuries were encountered most often 44.7%, acute injuries 41.9%, overuse fatigue injuries 9.7%. 277 surveys clearly diagnosed by physician. Following body areas were the commonest injuries that occurred, knee(85 patient), foot (29), spine (29), lower leg (26), shoulder (25), hip (19) and ankle (16). Ligament injuries / sprains (45), strains and tendinitis (40), apophysitis (25), cartilage problems (13), patellofemoral problems (26), features (25)bone overuse injury and stress fractures (24), soft tissue injuries (25), muscle strains (17), spine related injury (23) and concussion (33).

A descriptive cross sectional study was done in Sri Lanka by (Henakaarachchi, Gunawardena, & Perera, May 2017).The data collection was carried out using interviewer administer questionnaire with 91 professional male football players in the national squad in Sri Lanka. Found that, injury prevalence was 95.6%. 5.4% players had upper limb injuries, 83.9%- lower limb, 3.2%- back injuries, 7.5%-head and neck injuries. Researcher found that there is a higher prevalence of lower limb injuries than upper limb injuries, spine and head and neck. So again researcher categorized lower limb injuries in to knee injuries (43.5%), ankle injuries (30.8%),upper leg injuries (10.3%), groin injuries (7.7%), lower leg injuries (5.2%) and foot injuries (2.5%). Hip injuries and pelvis injuries were not reported.

Types of injuries were carried into and the result showed 19.3% contusions, 6.5% lacerations, 42.0% strains, 29.0 % sprains and 3.2 % fractures. The dislocation was not reported. Also, researcher found that the time of recovery injured players. Out of injuries 14.0% had taken 1day for recovery, 25.8% had taken1-7 days for the recovery,40.9% had taken 7 -14 days for the recovery and 19.3% had taken more than 14 days for the recovery. Cryotherapy was the commonest first aid used (65.3%).After injury 87.1% players had met physiotherapist for treatment.

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