Indian Economy: is Globalization Good Or Bad for It

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Table of Contents

  • Impact on Indian Economy
  • Competition:
    Exports & Imports :
    Greater Number of Jobs:
    Higher Disposable Income:
    Shrinking Agricultural Sector:
    Increasing Health-Care Costs:
    Slower GDP Growth Rate:
    Increase in Foreign Exchange Reserves:
  • Development of Market:
  • Foreign Investment Flow:
    Market Capitalization:
    Poverty and Unemployment:
  • Conclusion:

Economic globalization implies the extending relationship of world economies as a result of the cross-periphery trade of products and organizations, stream of worldwide capital and wide and quick spread of headways. It mirrors the proceeding with extension and common coordination of market frontiers and is an irreversible example for the economic advancement in the whole world at the end of the millennium. The brisk creating essentialness of data in a wide scope of productive activities and marketization are the two important primary purposes for financial globalization. The headway of science and technologies has fundamentally diminished the expense of transportation and communication, making economic globalization possible. The present ocean shipping cost is only a half of that in the year 1930, the present airfreight 1/6, and media transmission cost 1%. The expense of PCs in 1990 was simply around 1/125 of that in 1960, and this incentive in 1998 diminished again by about 80%. This kind of ”time and space compression effect” of mechanical progression phenomenally lessened the expense of worldwide trade and investment, along these lines making it possible to make and encourage worldwide production. (Shangquan)

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Impact on Indian Economy


In view of globalization, Indian organizations started to face heat from free stream of items made by worldwide organizations (MNCs). Unequal competition between the local organizations and strong MNCs has brought about conclusion of industrial units both under large, medium and small-scale sectors. (Sethy, n.d.)

Exports & Imports :

India’s offer in worldwide merchandise export has grown from 0.6% in mid 1990s to 1.6% in 2016 and the government means to accomplish 3.4% to diminish reliance on imports and at the same time create jobs. Globalizers were of the view that Indian exports would increase at snappier rate than that of imports. But things have not been as they anticipated. Indian exports which was 7.3% of GDP in 1991-92 rose to 9.1% of GDP in 1995-96 and 18.87% in 2017 while the pattern of Indian imports ascended from 8.3% of GDP in 1991-92 to 12.3% in 1995-96 and 21.77% in 2017. This shows how the passage to foreign markets by Indians is becoming bit by bit when contrasted with the entrance of outsiders in our market. India’s present Import Rank is 11 out of 121 nations while the Export rank is 18 out of 121 nations.

Greater Number of Jobs:

The approach of foreign organizations and improvement in economy has incited employment creation. Regardless, these occupations are assembled more in the services sector and this has provoked quick improvement of services segment making issues for individuals with low education level. The latest decade came to be alluded to for its jobless growth as employment generation was not proportionate to the element of economic improvement.

Higher Disposable Income:

People in urban areas working in lucrative occupations have increasingly vital pay to spend on lifestyle products. There has been an extension in the interest of items like meat, egg, beats, organic products and so on in like manner. Expendable Personal Income in India extended to 169623970 INR Million in 2017 from 154965120 INR Million in 2016. Expendable Personal Income in India found the center estimation of 20312696.76 INR Million from 1950 until 2017, accomplishing an immaculate high of 169623970 INR Million in 2017 and a record low of 91540 INR Million in 1950.

Shrinking Agricultural Sector:

Farming presently contributes just about 15% to GDP. More noteworthy joining of global commodities markets prompts consistent variance in prices. This has extended the frailty of Indian farmers. Agriculturists are also reliant on seeds and manures sold by the MNCs. Globalization does not have any beneficial outcome on agribusiness. Notwithstanding what may be normal, it has couple of unfavorable effects as government is ceaselessly prepared to import food grains, sugar, etc. at whatever point there is a cost increase of these products. Government never thinks to pay more to farmers with the objective that they produce more grains however swings to imports. On the other hand, subsidies are declining so cost of production is increasing. In reality, even farmers making composts need to endure on account of imports. There are moreover perils like introduction of GM crops, herbicide safe harvests, etc. (Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, n.d.)

Increasing Health-Care Costs:

Progressive interconnections of the world have in like manner provoked the expanding powerlessness to illnesses. Notwithstanding whether it is the bird flu contamination or Ebola, the illnesses have taken an overall turn, spreading far and wide. This results in increasingly essential interest in health care sector to fight such diseases.

Slower GDP Growth Rate:

Despite elevated standard that globalization would energize achieving of higher GDP development rate through export drove development however that desire has neglected to rise. The GDP development rates expanded from 5.2 percent in 1992-93 to 8.2 percent in 1996-97 however starting now and into the foreseeable future it a little bit at a time declined to 4.6 percent in 1997-98, 6.2 percent in 1999-2000 and it hit a low of 3.9% in 2008. It has been slowly expanding now with the present development rate at 6.6%. (Trading Economics, n.d.)

Increase in Foreign Exchange Reserves:

As an aftereffect of globalization of Indian, In the year 1991, forex reserves of India were Rs 4,388 crore which in April 2012 expanded to Rs. 15,24,328 crores (US $ 293.14 billion). Along these lines, there has been an expansion of multiple times in forex reserves of India. This gives the country a feeling of fiscal power and prevalence over other countries. Forex Reserves assume a critical job in a developing economy like India’s.

Development of Market:

Globalization has extended the span of market, it has enabled Indian organizations to grow their business in the whole world. By and by worldwide organizations, have no national cutoff points. Indian organizations like Infosys, Tata consultancy, Wipro, Tata Steel, Reliance, etc., are doing their business in various countries of the world.

Foreign Investment Flow:

The supporters of globalization have been ensuring that globalization would make prepared for progressively critical inflow of foreign investment. Regardless, things are not moving that way. Foreign Investment generally enters in two structures—Foreign direct Investment and Foreign Portfolio Investment. In any case, the FDI enhances the productive capacity and investment of the nation however the portfolio investment encourages speculation activities. Amid 1990-91 to 1994-95, the offer of FDI was 24.2 percent and that of FPI was as high as 75.8 percent. In the midst of the resulting time period, i.e., amid 1995-96 to 1999-2000, the offer of FPI has declined to 45.2 percent and the offer of FDI has achieved 54.8 percent. Again amid 2000-01 to 2005-06 the offer of FDI has again declined to 46.1 percent and the offer of FPI has expanded to 53.9 percent. Afterward, in the accompanying 6-year time span, i.e., from 2000-01 to 2005-06, the offer of FDI again declined to 46.1 percent and the offer of FPI further extended to 53.9 percent.

Market Capitalization:

India’s rank was fourth in market capitalization in 2005, it was preceded by USA, Germany and China. Be that as it may, at present its rank is ninth, it implies it is preceded by eight countries and India’s position has worsened yet India could join trillion-dollar market by experiencing all good and bad times. India’s market capital is $1.6 trillion, and it is 2.5 percent of world’s capital market.

Poverty and Unemployment:

As per the Forbes list 2015, India’s number of billionaires has crossed 100 and the riches they have is more than the investment in public sector undertakings by central government. This has incited wide extent of inconsistencies of riches among Indian people. A couple of individuals are such who are passing on from starvation and some are biting the dust in light of consumption of excess food in our nation. In this way, Malnutrition, child labor, and crime are on the rise. Still a significant degree of people in India living below poverty line even India has been not ready to accomplish millennium advancement objectives in case of various pointers. Despite whether India’s present age is instructed yet at the same time anyway Indian youth is encountering joblessness and they have to get by on subsistence compensation. (Raghunath)


Globalization has its own special negative similarly as beneficial outcomes in current time. Our policies have been against regular man. It is the government which can receive the rewards from globalization if it drafts and executes professional individuals’ arrangements to pull in FDI’s. There is case of many developed as well as developing nations, for example, south Asian nations like China, who have yielded a ton from globalization by trading all through the world. Our arrangements are influenced by colossal corporates and elites it is shown by the expanding number of very rich people in India as indicated by Forbes list. To be sure, even our decisions are financed by corporates so plainly government strategies are too impacted by corporates to fulfill their very own individual advantages. It is the approaches of China and Russia who have utilized the FDI’s to raise the majority over the poverty line. Such approaches and frame of mind should be grasped by India towards globalization. Just star poor strategies and workforce prepared for occupations will be worthwhile for government. Indians are up ’til now sitting tight for good days.

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