Innovation in any field is a gradual process which takes a period of 20-30 years of research, experiment, and adaptability. The budding discovery is followed by preclinical activity intended to test whether the putative therapeutic target is indeed viable. The next step is determined by a decision-making process that comprises multiple steps and includes assessments that link financial support with the probability of success; if the decision is to move forward, then the next stage of development is undertaken by clinical research organizations from the medical products industry, contract research organizations, or academia. Just taking an example of Innovation in anesthesia i.e. is inhibition of sensation. Attempts for producing & use of anesthesia can be found in the history of Chinese, Arabians, Egyptians, Greeks, Africans, Romans, Austrians &Indians.
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After numerous attempts & experiments, the first public demonstration of general anesthesia held on October 16, 1846. We can’t imagine a modern medical treatment in surgery without sophistication in anesthesia. Single innovation can be act as a base for the activity of other ongoing experiments. Now, in the age of transplantation of organs & ease of medical check-up, the easy infiltration of diseases in the body & environmental factors which have degraded our immune system can’t be denied. We have done numerous experiments & innovations to make our life simpler either by using high-quality medicines(chemical factor), lighter tools ( Mechanical factor) & use of highly accurate automated machines.
The amalgamation of Programming technology & Electronics(Superfast Microcontrollers) has led to the development of numerous tools & devices which has the ability to diagnose diseases with one click. The development of Inoculation Monitoring Device (App also) has led the parents to take vaccines on time which has helped in decreasing mortality rate. May be one would have not imagined the use of Material handling robot, isothermal detector, therocycler, centrifuge, cytometer, thermal system, sonicator, flurometer, camera & various electronic devices mainly sensors accompanied by the huge database which contains past history of the patient, trained sensors which are detecting every moment of the body, trying to simulate with the feeded system which is nothing but million lines of codes. The result mayn’t be so promising but can give a general idea to Doctors to diagnose in very small time which was not possible in earlier days. A small drop of blood can be only required to give you numerous & accurate test results at a very fast speed and at a fraction of the price.
The Research & Development team always try to give its best result for the betterment of human benefit which gradually changes according to the need, feasibility & demand. Any research requires lot of time & investment and thereafter it has to pass through Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other national and international regulatory bodies to make decisions—based on criteria that vary depending on which division of the FDA is involved or which country is doing the evaluation—about whether the therapy is ready to be introduced into clinical use. After a therapy is approved, it is supposed to reach the appropriate people in the approved manner through a competitive system that includes health systems, hospitals, clinical practices, purchasers, and sales representatives for the product or technology. Ultimately, when the therapy’s patent protection expires, its price will diminish, and the health of the entire community will benefit from the wider access thus afforded. There are numerous diseases found recently like Zika , Ebola etc. whose treatment are not available yet.
There could be many factors affecting in the research of medicine for above viruses i.e. could be the area which is affected, underprivileged or privatized population, smaller section is affected or wider section & the required investment which will funded is feasible to give enough handsome returns. Biomedical science is advancing at an amazing rate, yet the translation of that science into better health outcomes has not kept pace. Much of this lag is due to non-technological reasons, including financing, regulation, and cultural issues. Another factor is that the rewards for researchers who promote innovation are increasingly disconnected with the healthcare needs of society at large.
Canadian Institutes for Health Research (CIHR) in 2000; the World Health Organization (WHO 2005) adapted the CIHR’s definition and defined knowledge translation as “the synthesis, exchange, and application of knowledge by relevant stakeholders to accelerate the benefits of global and local innovation in strengthening health systems and improving people’s health.” The National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR) has also adopted knowledge translation by developing a working definition in its long-range plan for 2005–2009. NIDRR refers to knowledge translation as “the multidimensional, active process of ensuring that new knowledge gained through the course of research ultimately improves the lives of people with disabilities, and furthers their participation in society” (NIDRR 2005).
CIHR (2004) states that the process of knowledge translation includes knowledge dissemination, communication, technology transfer, ethical context, knowledge management, knowledge utilization, two-way exchange process between researchers and those who apply knowledge, implementation research, technology assessment, synthesis of results with the global context, and development of consensus guidelines.
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