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International Business - Introduction to Study of Issue

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Introduction

Now a days and for decades, the world is living in the information society, where ICT plays a major role in the modern production process, which is characterized by intensive knowledge production. With the doubling of human knowledge, the global economy is transformed into an economy based on scientific knowledge. In this knowledge economy, knowledge becomes the greater part of value added, and the key to this knowledge is innovation and technology. We are now undergoing a stage of development known as the development of technical science, where a group of applied science is not dealt with in the sacred sense of science. Rather, it is dealt with in the field of technological application, which interacts with the achievements of all basic sciences and makes the time difference between knowledge generated and applied.

GATT

The impact of the world trade on the world economy has been unmatched by the inter linkage of interrelated international trade relations and interests between a number of countries and the emergence of a new world economic order characterized by the domination of the capitalist system by its rules and mechanisms and by the countries that have benefited from the liberalization of trade and the movement of global capital.

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The Organization carries out several activities based on several tasks through non-discrimination, which means that special care is not granted to one of the States of the Organization at the expense of other States and that no distinction is made between Member States or non-members. Each country can provide a commercial advantage to the other country for The other members of the institution, the work of the institution on the principle of transparency based on the tariff and not on the quantity, which means that the countries that protect the national product must follow the policy of tariff rates and away from the restrictions of quantities, while the institution acted as a mediator for dispute resolution also organized activities to support plans for developing countries and the adoption of trade relations with developed countries in order to improve the standard of living, as well as the institution imposed on the Member States to the principle of reciprocity for the liberalization of world trade restrictions, including a corresponding reduction in both tariff and non-tariff of all mutual parties. The institution seeks to raise the standard of living of all countries, especially Member States, by eliminating unemployment and comprehensive employment of all individuals, as well as the growth of investment and capital, in addition to the best utilization of economic resources, in addition to reducing tariffs and quantitative barriers to increase trade and trade throughout the world. Opinion in decision-making is based on the principle of voting and decision is taken by majority and oversees national trade policies as well as promoting the procedures for the least restrictive trade provisions. The organization seeks to restrain governments from setting special standards for trade, especially with respect to food safety and public health, as well as protecting workers and the environment. The organization has received opposition from developing countries because it does not give it the full right to trade freedom but the organization insists that it takes into account the full interests of these countries through its dealings with developed countries, while trading indicates that the organization seeks to protect the big countries in particular. The Organization has liberalized goods and services and has created special problems with Arab countries that have been alerted to the risks of these deliberations due to the free trade in unwanted prices. In addition, the Organization has abolished agricultural subsidies for some products in developed countries. This has resulted in problems in countries where agriculture is a basic income. The complexity of the competition for industry between developing and developed countries in the framework of the protection of the Organization of the developed countries more than the developing countries resulted in a defect in the volume of services provided by the parties.

The most important of this organization

Economic integration is the establishment of a level or degree of interdependence and interdependence among a group of countries with economic, social, political, and other components. The degree of coherence is strong and comprehensive enough to cause profound and long-term changes in the economies of member states. To determine the extent of state accession. This is different from economic cooperation that facilitates cash and material flows through an agreement between a State and a group of States.

WTO

There is no doubt that international trade in its main axis is a collection of mutual exchanges between the various frameworks. These transactions are between the exports and imports and control of such transactions. The rules and conditions stipulated in the contracts concluded between these parties include fixing prices,

In recent years, the WTO has passed through difficult times. The massive failure of the Third Ministerial Conference in Seattle in 1999, and the fragmentation of the imaginary consensus that led to the Doha Development Round in November 2001, add to the hostility shown by the Bush administration to pluralism of all forms and the increasingly stubborn opposition of developing countries to expand the Organization’s mandate, Of course, about the popular demonstrations that haunt here and there ministerial meetings. The progress of the Trojan horse in the liberalization and economic regulation programs created in January 1995 after the Uruguay Round negotiations seems to be at a great loss, at least so far. Hence the validity of the question posed by the subtitle of this book edited by Christian Deblock. In order to complete the trading system and become all parties in the case of reassurance of those transactions it was necessary to have an official body to regulate such transactions and monitor the contracts between the commercial entities and the obligations stipulated and resorted to in the case of disputes and commercial issues that may occur for any reason reasons, Supervising the establishment of special rules to be adhered to by all parties and hence the WTO. In fact, if the question is well, it is rather to address it, concerning the progress of the negotiations since the fourth ministerial meeting in Doha, which represents the major contribution of the book. The main purpose of the texts is therefore to assess the latest developments in the multilateral trading system with highlighting key issues. However for the general public, who seem to have followed for some time now closer to the development of the global economy.

The objectives of the World Trade Organization are concentrated in several points, all of which seek to regulate the trade movement in all its forms and diversity of methods. We can summarize these objectives and activities in the following points:

IMF

  • Negotiate the reduction or elimination of obstacles to trade such as import tariffs and agreement on rules governing the conduct of international trade such as anti-dumping, subsidies and product standards.
  • Free flow and flow of trade by eliminating all trade restrictions while maintaining the principle of equal opportunity.
  • Monitoring and reviewing trade policies of Member States as well as ensuring transparency in regional and bilateral trade agreements.
  • Administering and monitoring the application of WTO rules agreed for trade in goods, services and trade related to intellectual property.
  • Dispute settlement among members regarding the interpretation and application of agreements.
  • Capacity-building for the development of government officials in Member States on international trade issues.
  • Ensure the principle of the first states of nationals and non-discriminatory treatment by members to provide the principle of equal opportunities.
  • Assistance in the process of accession of new countries from among 30 countries seeking accession and placed within the observer countries until all conditions and mechanisms relating to accession are met.
  • Conduct economic research and collect and disseminate trade data in support of key activities
  • To promote and develop the welfare of peoples, reduce poverty and promote peace and stability.
  • Commitment to transparency in the conduct of activities.
  • Elimination of unfair practices such as export subsidies and products.

The International Monetary Fund was established at the same time as the World Bank was established to perform different functions, both of which were relevant. The IMF focused primarily on the actions that countries should take in order to achieve the overall economic and financial stability necessary for sound and sustainable economic growth. Was created to promote long-term economic development, poverty alleviation and to contribute to project financing. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the first likely recourse to help a country in crisis through rapid advice and funding, while the World Bank Lassa to provide development assistance fund and the World Bank are collaborating on a number of issues, especially poverty reduction in low-income countries.

Although the Fund was originally created to act as a cooperative institution overseeing the international monetary system, it also supports this system by injecting money from time to time, sometimes very often, through loans to its members. Perhaps the best image the public has ever seen of the IMF is its billions of dollars destined for the international monetary system during the debt crisis of the 1980s. Thus, between 1983 and 1984, the Fund lent some $ 28 billion. to member countries that had difficulty meeting their financial obligations to other members. It is likely that the Fund’s rapid response to this crisis – which has been well reported – may mislead observers into believing that the Fund is primarily a credit institution. This is not the case as the Fund remains a monitoring institution primarily designed to coordinate efforts to strengthen cooperation in economic policy formulation. However, his work is important. Funds also come from foreign investment and aid – in the case of the poorest countries – from rich countries. Nevertheless, countries – like individuals – can spend more than they earn, and this deficit is blocked for a certain period of time by borrowing until the credit is exhausted, which is the case in the long run. When that happens, it is imperative that the state face a number of heinous outcomes, including the loss of the common purchasing power of its currency and the forced reduction of imports from other countries.

IFAD transfers funds only to member countries with a balance of payments problem, ie countries that do not have enough foreign exchange to face the value of their purchases from other countries. . Funds received by a country come from export revenues, the provision of services (such as banking and insurance) and tourists. Any member country may request the assistance of the IMF, which will provide it with sufficient currency for a certain period of time to enable it to correct what is wrong with its economic life, taking into account the stabilization of its currency and the strengthening of its trades. In addition to overseeing the international monetary system and providing financial support to member countries, the Fund assists Member States in the management of a training institute in Washington, DC, which enables them to provide technical assistance in some areas. Specialized areas. It also publishes a wide range of publications on international monetary issues. The activities of IMF are related to following: To monitor and advise on all economic and financial policies and developments in Member States worldwide, based on the experience gained since its inception. To provide loans to Member States with balance-of-payments problems with a view to their temporary funding and to support the Fund’s reform and correction policies aimed at solving basic problems. Providing technical assistance and training in all areas of IMF experience to the governments of its member states and central banks. To provide loans to Member States with balance-of-payments problems with a view to their temporary funding and to support the Fund’s reform and correction policies aimed at solving basic problems. Providing technical assistance and training in all areas of IMF experience to the governments of its member states and central banks. Providing technical assistance and training in all areas of IMF experience to the governments of its member states and central banks.

World Bank

Initially, loans were provided for financing to rebuild the economies of war-torn countries in Western Europe and Japan after World War II. Today, the Bank provides loans to developing countries in Africa, Asia, Central Europe, Latin America, the Middle East and the former Soviet Union.

World Bank jobs

  1. Providing funds for development projects and programs
  2. Providing policy advice and technical assistance
  3. Encourage knowledge exchange services

The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) credits its lending to developing countries mainly on the sale of AAA-rated securities in global financial markets. While IBRD earns a small margin on these loans, most of its income comes from lending its own capital. This capital consists of accumulated reserves over the years and funds paid by the Bank’s shareholders from the 186 member countries. IBRD’s income also finances the operational expenses of the World Bank and has contributed to IDA’s work and debt relief.

Investment operations

Loans, credits and investment grants provide financing for a wide range of activities aimed at building the physical and social infrastructure necessary for poverty reduction and sustainable development. Over the past two decades, investment operations have averaged about 75-80 per cent of the Bank’s portfolio.

Investment operations have changed over time. Investment lending and grants initially focused on securing access to engineering and civil engineering equipment and services. But is now more focused on institution-building, social development and improving the public policy infrastructure needed to promote private sector activity.

The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA) provide investment operations to borrowing countries provided they have no arrears due to the Bank Group.

Development Policy Processes

Development policy processes provide rapid financial assistance that allows countries to meet actual or potential development financing requirements with local or external assets. Typically, these processes help to achieve a set of specific development outcomes through a medium-term program of policy and institutional action procedures that are consistent with the country’s economic and sectoral policies. Over the two fiscal years 2006 and 2007, IDA and World Bank development policy processes 30% of the Bank’s total financial commitments. Development policy processes can be stand-alone processes or often part of a series of programs. In program operations, the Bank supports the implementation of a medium-term policy reform program through a series of annual operations, each disbursed against a jointly agreed set of policy and institutional procedures. In low-income countries where governments have adopted a poverty reduction strategy where the development policy series supports the implementation of this strategy, development policy processes can be called PRSPs, usually consisting of a three-year program series.

Services analytical and consultative

While the World Bank is primarily defined as a funding agency, one of its other roles is to provide analytical, advisory and information services to member countries so as to enable them to make the lasting improvements their people need at the economic and social levels. The World Bank pursues many ways and various ways to achieve this. One way is to conduct economic research and gather information and data on broad issues such as the environment, poverty, trade and globalization. And other non-lending activities, such as economic and sectoral work, where the economic prospects of a country are assessed through the examination of its banking and financial markets, as well as trade and infrastructure issues, poverty and social safety nets, for example. The World Bank also relies on its knowledge bank resources to educate and educate clients so that they are equipped to solve development problems and promote economic growth. The Knowledge Bank is the wealth of communication, knowledge, information and experience gained by the World Bank over years of development work from country to country and from project to project. The World Bank’s ultimate goal is to promote the information revolution in developing countries.

Building abilities

Another key function of the World Bank is to increase and strengthen the capacities of its partners, developing country peoples, staff and experts to enable them to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to deliver technical assistance, improve government performance, deliver services, promote economic growth and sustain poverty reduction programs. The World Bank has established links to networks of knowledge exchange.

United Nations

Developing countries often do not have the efficient and quality infrastructure that helps to test products and adopt them through conformity assessment procedures in line with the requirements of markets of developed countries, consumers and others. The effects of inefficient inspection and inspection systems to facilitate trade mean:

  • Refuse goods on the border
  • Increased distance from markets due to delays related to conformity assessment procedures
  • The high costs of inspection by the private sector
  • Lack of border processes for risk management approaches.
  • Resulting in the loss of economic opportunities, high transaction costs and prolonged access to export markets.

The objective of UNCTAD’s capacity-building activities in trade is to strengthen the capacity of States to conduct inspection and inspection activities within an internationally recognized framework so that they can effectively respond to the demands of many international markets.

Because the principle of inspection and inspection is very important, it is one of the basic requirements of the WTO Agreement on Trade Facilitation

Analysis of the reasons for the rejection of goods on the border and the publication of results in the Trade Standards Compliance Reports (TSCRs), which identify and address stifling obstacles to promote trade facilitation

Support the development of a sound risk management system at the country level by assisting the parties concerned to adhere to technical regulations with a view to enhancing the transparency of trade procedures. Assisting the inspection, inspection and accreditation entities to obtain internationally recognized certificates of accreditation, enabling them to offer their services to customers at competitive prices. This reduces the cost of production to local firms and reduces delays at the border

Strengthen the World Trade Organization (WTO) technical barriers to trade barriers (TBT) / sanitary and phytosanitary measures (SPS) and maintain their activity throughout the developing regions by feeding them with new information on the requirements of the Trade Facilitation Agreement and providing access to commercial

Accurate and updated data

SME support to overcome TBT-related problems and SPS measures by addressing any quality requirements within a given value chain. This would reduce the economic distance of goods to reach their markets. The United Nations system is the largest purchaser of goods and services, with purchases amounting to $ 6.4 billion. The (UNICEF) buys half of all vaccines produced worldwide. While United Nations relief agencies provide aid and protection to more than 23 million refugees and displaced persons around the world. The United Nations system also sets the technical standards for telecommunications, aviation, maritime transport and postal services enabling international transactions. In most cases, post-conflict United Nations peace-building efforts involve overseeing the collection and destruction of hundreds of thousands of weapons and facilitating reintegration Former members of society. UN established many sub-organizations to work around the world in different fields and some of them are:

Some specialized agencies, funds and programs of the United Nations

The Economic and Social Council shall consider the reports submitted by several specialized agencies, funds and programs, each of which has its own separate organization, which provides for its membership and budget. The following is a partial list of these agencies, funds and programs:

United Nations Development Programme

UNDP is the United Nations global development network that calls for change and links countries with the knowledge, experience and resources needed to help people build a better life. UNDP is working in 166 countries to work with them to apply their own solutions to global and national development challenges.

United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)

The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) is the principal United Nations organization for the defense, promotion and protection of the rights of children. The organization also works to protect the most disadvantaged children’s rights in the world.

United Nations Environment Program

UNEP provides leadership and encourages partnerships in environmental issues. The program is responsible for environmental monitoring, assessment and early environmental warning.

United Nations Population Fund

UNFPA promotes the rights of women, men and children to a healthy life. UNFPA provides support to countries to use population data in the formulation of policies and programs aimed at reducing poverty, ensuring that every pregnancy is safe and every birth is safe and that every girl or woman is treated with dignity and respect.

Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

UNHCR provides legal protection to refugees and seeks durable solutions to their problems, either by assisting them to return voluntarily to their homes or to settle in other countries.

International Labour Organization

The ILO develops policies and programs aimed at promoting basic human rights for workers, improving their working conditions and livelihoods and enhancing access to employment.

Conclusion

Globalization is directed towards trade, control of the free market, increasing trade based on technology, spreading all possible means of learning, using trade and trade liberalization policies across borders, and setting up activities to reduce high prices and keeping pace with the developing countries of developed countries. However, these policies adopted by the international financial institutions are the main responsibility On the deterioration of working and popular classes in the countries of the South and East. That these policies do not constitute a solution to the crisis, but on the contrary push it to exacerbate it. Institutions must comply with their activities and keep pace with their work to reduce the phenomenon of global poverty, the level of unemployment and overcome all obstacles to life, guaranteeing the rights of everyone in life and work.

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