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The Dispossessed is a science fiction novels about two opposing planets: Anarres and Urras. Although it seems like a utopian novel, it is actually a novel that refers to political ideologies in today’s world. Anarres; It is a planet that has more inefficient lands but citizens are more happy and peaceful. Urras; it is the opposite. An incredibly fertile planet where the hierarchy has made a ceiling and the power gap is very much differentiated, just like today. The book shows anarchism as an alternative by criticizing capitalism. I will analyze the state forms in the planets of Urras and Anarres with the help of capitalism and anarchism ideologies.
In Anarres the concept of property has a social structure in which there is no state and authority. In Anarres the person works for the whole society and for the livelihood of society, and in return, he does not want anything material. No one has any property, all resources are shared with everyone and even the words describing ownership are often not used. In Anarres there are people who advocate anarchist thought. On the other hand, in Urras, where the wetlands and the prosperous wealth appear to be abundant, the concept of ownership, pleasure, luxury, and property are at the extreme end. In Urras competition occurs because people are trying to raise more. This competition leads to more products and better products. Although there are material imbalances in society, a certain standard of living is achieved. In Urras, as in our world, capitalism prevails. As can be understood from the initials of URRAS, it is a reference to the USA and the USSR, and the order described in Urras is clearly capitalism. Additionally, the anarchist world Anarres name means that has no property. The novel clearly criticizing the state capitalist system and targeting the concept of revolution, also refer to real life.
The author does not argue that anarchism is the best alternative. She tries to show that it will not be easy to have peace and prosperity in a society that avoids property and authority. Transparency in Anarres can be interpreted on the basis of social organization. The social order here is based on the equality and mutual sharing of all individuals. In Anarres, excessive consumption was rejected in relation to the existing physical conditions, and the principle of consuming enough became social moral. The drought, famine, dust, and storm in Anarres make life difficult, while in Urras abundance, water, biodiversity, and grandeur make life fascinating and enjoyable. For this reason, Anarres has the freedom of sharing, a sufficient amount of consumption and respect for the rights of others, which will require living in difficult conditions. On the other hand, in Urras, social segregation like capitalist order, negative freedom, and excessive consumption are dominant. Throughout the novel, the discourses such as freedom, sharing, dispossession, disagreement, consumption, and transformation are questioned and relativity and possibilities of these discourses are discussed.
To sum up, when it is taken into consideration explicitly in the criticism of Capitalism, it is seen that the criticism has been continued with three basic concepts throughout the novel. Freedom, equality, and over-consumption are the three concepts which are examined in The Dispossessed and whose relativity and likelihood are questioned.