Punishments are the diminishing of an occurrence of a reaction in operant conditioning by either introducing a negative stimulus or eliminating a positive stimulus. Punishments are most effective to diminish the occurrence in a behavior if it trails the behavior directly rather than a while after the unwanted behavior (Cherry, 2017). Punishments often work best and maintain the best results when they are steadily enforced (Cherry, 2017). One bad thing about punishments is that they do not show what is a more suitable or preferred reaction is (Cherry, 2017). Although children may stop performing the unwanted activities, they do not learn what they should be doing instead of the bad activity. In the classroom, teachers can use punishments to put an end to a bad behavior or reaction. For example, if the class is being extremely loud or disruptive, the teacher can give a negative punishment such as taking away recess time. The teacher can also enforce a positive punishment such as giving an extra sheet of homework to the students. Due to these punishments, the students’ unwanted behavior will lessen.Affluent ParentsAn affluent parent is a parent with a plethora of wealth which can have both positive and negative effects on their children. Even though many times teachers and educators assume that children from affluent families are low risk, ongoing studies state otherwise (Luthar, 2003).
Studies have identified issues in quite a few areas such as substance abuse, depression, and anxiety because of two potential causes (Luthar, 2003). These causes are burdens to achieve and isolation from family (Luthar, 2003). The isolation may be caused from the lack of time spent together with the family because of not only the parents’ career obligations, but also the child’s multiple after-school events. Also, in affluent families the children are frequently pressured to do well at both academic and extracurricular activities. This often results in high amounts of stress. Because of the fact that children in affluent families can have poor academic achievement and are criticized in their homes, teachers need to be the ones who encourage the children. In addition, teachers can explain to students that grades aren’t everything and that there is much more to life. Affluent students need to know that there is somebody who believes in them and is proud of them, which could potentially decrease their high risk of anxiety and depression.
Effortful control is a deliberate suspension of an impulsive reaction to design and execute a better, smarter reaction. Varieties in effortful control are apparent in how successfully children can center and shift their attention, cope with negative emotions, and restrain impulses (Berk, 2016, 255, 2). Results of effortful control consist of task mastery, persistence, ethical maturity, scholastic accomplishment, and social actions such as sharing, collaboration, and helpfulness (Berk, 2016, 255, 2). These provide a possibility to create good bonds with both adults and other children their age (Berk, 2016, 255, 2). Effortful control is extremely important for a successful classroom. Effortful control can be increased by incorporating group projects into activities through the use of collaboration, task mastery, persistence, and more. For example, the teacher can split the classroom into small groups and have everyone write down on a poster what they learned from a reading. This exercise will allow the students to interact and collaborate to come up with the answer.
Authoritative parenting means that the parent has a warm but firm relationship with their children and is often seen as the best form of parenting. Authoritative parents assert need for mature behavior. They describe explanations for their expectations and they often correct children’s misbehaviors to encourage their self-regulation (Berk, 2016, 393, 1). They often let children come up with their own decisions on their own when they believe that the children are prepared to make a decision (Berk, 2016, 393, 1). Just as parents can be authoritative, so can teachers. These educators consider students to be capable, so despite the fact that they are continually ready to help, they are mindful so as not to create reliance or to give themselves a chance to be used negatively. Authoritative teachers praise students when they achieve high grades and encourage students to do their best. Self- EfficacySelf-efficacy is a person’s knowledge that they have the capacity to accomplish their goals. These understandings lead the child’s actions during certain circumstances (Berk, 2016, 18, 3). For example, a parent who constantly states, “Good job, honey! You did so well on your homework even though it was difficult for you,” to the child will help the child begin to think of themselves as a reliable and high-achieving child. Children then find others with these same personality traits as models (Berk, 2016, 18, 3). When kids obtain values, attitudes, and convictions about oneself, they then begin guiding their own knowledge and behavior (Berk, 2016, 18, 3).
To ensure self-efficacy, teachers can incorporate certain activities into their classroom that describe someone’s past experience, especially someone who students see as their role model and how this person achieves success. This way, when they hear that someone has struggled but are still doing fine, they may think that if someone else can do it, then they can do it.Long Term MemoryLong term memory is the greatest storage part in the brain comprising of lasting knowledge and the greatest resistance to decay in information processing. The long-term storage area is actually infinite which is why retrieving the information from the system can often times be difficult and cause issues (Berk, 2016, 216, 3). In long term memory, the information is categorized by its contents which helps enable us to retrieve items by succeeding the identical network of associations that stored the information as the beginning (Berk, 2016, 216, 3).
Teachers should create strategies to help students improve their long term memory on certain subjects. For instance, teachers can have students come up with a memory plan before studying for quizzes and tests. In addition, the students can complete worksheets or activities that require an abundance of memory, especially cumulative courses.AccommodationAccommodation is when new schemas are produced or past ones are adapted for the appropriate fit for the setting according to Jean Piaget. Accommodation occurs when children figure out that new information does not resemble any of their present schemes and they change from assimilation to accommodation (Berk, 2016, 202, 4). Each time that this repeating change occurs between equilibrium and disequilibrium, additional schemes are presented (Berk, 2016, 202, 4). Accommodation can be seen in the classroom in many ways, such as a field trip to the zoo. For example, a student may see a zebra and think that it is a horse because they have never seen a zebra before. The child then assimilates this data into their schema for a horse. At the point when the student accommodates data, they discover the distinctive properties of a zebra contrasted with a horse. They may consider a zebra to just be a strange horse that has stripes. When the student finally figures out what a zebra is, the information is accommodated.Make- Believe PlayMake- believe play is when children pretend to do fantasy or ordinary activities. Make-believe play frequently supports social advancement because of the fact that children are both carrying on as themselves and as another person (Gleason, 2018). This allows the children to investigate the world from alternate points of view, and requires contemplating two different ways of being at the same time, something that kids may experience issues doing in different conditions (Gleason, 2018). For example, if a kid is pretending to be the mother of a young infant, they need to envision what it would feel like in real life if they make-believe the baby cries or behaves badly (Gleason, 2018). Make- believe play can constantly be seen during school days, but especially at recess. There are students pretending to be firefighters, superheroes, or maybe a mom caring for a child. LateralizationLateralization is the inclination for certain neural capacities or intellectual processes to be specific to the one side of the brain or the other side. According to studies, the left hemisphere of the brain is superior at processing information in a piece-by-piece way, which is a suitable approach for production of communicative verbal and emotional information (Berk, 2016, 165, 4). The right hemisphere of the brain is better at processing information in a integrative way which is best for regulating negative feelings and spatial information (Berk, 2016, 165, 4).
A lateralized brain allows for a wider variety of functions to be processed and carried out than if both hemispheres of the brain specialized in the same functions (Berk, 2016, 165, 4). In the classroom, teachers should have activities that include both analytical methods and artistic or creative methods for both hemispheres of the brain. For example, if you have an assignment that is about data that the class has collected, incorporate both the data but also have the students draw something that has to do with either the data or what they learned.Games with RulesGames with rules are activities that children can participate in that teach them social skills, advancement in physical developments, and improvements in gross and fine motor skills. Games with rules allow children to practice with different types of competing, cooperating, winning, and losing without risking anything major (Berk, 2016, 422, 5). Children also find out the importance of rules and why certain rules work better than others (Berk, 2016, 422, 5). Games with rules help children understand more social aspects of society that they can take with them in the real world (Berk, 2016, 422, 5). Games with rules can be seen at recess when students are playing games like hopscotch, four square, or tag. Teachers can help incorporate games with rules in their classroom by having students create their own games with rules. By doing this, the students can determine their own rules for the game and figure out the rules for social interaction during the game. As students build up the idea of their game, they have to consult with one another to make the game fun for all players with different aptitude levels.
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