Time Management, there is no widely established definition for this. Many describe it as a combination of goal setting, time assessment, monitoring activities and planning. On how to best use time many scholars and laypeople alike has reflected for centuries. Definition for Time management depends upon how individual disciplines have different decisions on Time Management. For example, structure of time comes into picture for instance in sociology. In psychology accurate estimates on time for tasks and sticking to those plans emphasizes time management. But, one can define time management as making individual decisions on to allocate time on changing conditions and protect it.
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There is a high impact of time management on one individual life. One must maintain good relationship between time management and well-being. Wellbeing is a combination of pleasant emotions, low levels of negative moods, and high life satisfaction. To acknowledge the impact time management people must use Time Management Questionnaire, which measures degree of individuals well-being using their structure of time and stronger sense of purpose. Lower levels of depressions, hopelessness, anxiety, psychological distress plays important role in managing individual’s time. A subsequent experiment conducted in Germany indicates that stress has been reduced by time management. Overall, by experimental and non-experimental results indicates that various enhancing facets of well-being, lower stress, higher job satisfaction and quality of life are improved by time Management.
Another relationship which comes with time management is Performance. Some people to study effect of performance with time management they help people to spend more time on high-priority tasks and less time on lower level tasks demonstrating positive effects of performance. However, some evidences illustrate complex relationship between time management and performance. Effects on performance with time management seems to more consistent as behaviors more than results or outcomes. Time structure and time norms like people who occupied highly structured jobs has lower level of control on his/her time. Time structures affected by individual time management by organizing their time under system around. Time norms constrain time management structure through social pressures. For example, an employee may want to leave office early by wrapping up his report quickly, but unwritten time rules dictate an important client meeting and he should not be rushed lest the client.
Under the influence of time management social life has become more complex. To explore more on this, researchers are approaching time management from a complementary qualitative angle and study out people’s experiences. Under cross-cultural time management research, time structures and norms issues open the door to myriad opportunities adds to the above. Researching out individual differences based on time, awareness of temporal in individuals could enhance time management. Conducting a twin study on temporal awareness and time management to assess the extent to which they are dispositional constructs. Study of management in general field would add more research on temporal decision making. Conducting research on time evaluation, which is a key parameter in temporal decision making gives more information on important methodological implication for time management.
Time management training is widely popular in organizations and if methods to approach this are ill-advised management will fail like ignoring organizational time structures and norms. To overcome this programs on time management should expand more than one or two traditional values of time management. Programs should include more content for people higher in temporal decision making and bring awareness among them. Every Individual professional and personal life are organized through their entrepreneurs, expatriates, executives and academics are mostly depends on time management. Three distilled perspectives: time structures and norms, time-related individual differences and temporal decision making should be integrated in a good relationship with time management. Everybody needs to manage time with a good knowledge and consistent relationship between well-being, performances and time management.
Selection of an action in a course among more than two possible alternatives to achieve a best solution for the problem makes decision making. Decision making plays a vital role to check and balance system that helps in growth of organization in all directions. Decision making always seeks a goal. A lot of obstacles in operational domains, marketing wings and administrative section may arise to achieve a goal. Comprehensive decision-making sorts out these obstacles. Problem is not an end, if one is solved another arises, so decision making is a continuous and dynamic process. At present industrial world is witnessing decision making as a dynamic and competitive process.A good relationship which come with decision making is Problem analysis. Some arguments are traditionalized that problem analysis must done before decision making and gather all the information for a comprehensive decision making. Some characteristics to be followed in decision making are all objectives must be organized in the order of their importance, all the objectives must be evaluated against alternative methods, evaluating some possible consequences for tentative decision.
Another important factor that plays a vital role in decision making is Analysis paralysis. Analysis paralysis can be defined as a state of over thinking or over evaluating a situation so that a decision or action is delayed or never taken. If an information is overloaded on a problem uncertainty in decision making may increase.
Techniques in decision making can be categorized into two groups: 1. Group decision making 2. Individual decision making.
Generally, group type of decisions requires majority to approve course of action. Individual decision making involves listing out all the disadvantages and advantages involved in the problem for each option. Post decision analysis, analyzing past decisions on current situations add as a complementary to decision-making.
Emotion assists the process of decision making. Most of the Uncertainty in decision making occurs when one’s emotional choices leads to harm. Theory named somatic marker hypothesis in a neurobiological illustrates about an interplay between elicit emotional/bodily states and neural systems that makes these states. Another relational part which comes under decision making is Age. Teens, during their adolescent years makes most of their decisions of either high-risk behaviors or rash kind. Research concludes that these differences are not more due to only lack of knowledge or logic reasoning, but more due to capabilities of immaturity of psychosocial capacities. Control over risk-taking are better in adults because of their matured cognitive-control system. So, they are less likely to pulled over into risky situations.
Identifying the symptom of problem is the first step to be taken or considered for deciding. Symptoms can be like deviation from preplanned performance on a project in project management. In Project management if the team of project is performing very low instead of berating the team identifying the reason for their low performance and fixing it makes a certain decision making. Every problem in decision making should be defined in terms of solutions. Person or Emotional bias comes into place for defining problems interns of solutions. A difficult process of digging out reality of objective in various perceptions may help in bias situation.
Decision making is something which we do daily basis for juggling schedules, quality, resources, risks and many other factors. A rational decision making is done by listing out all the possible facts and analyzing them logically to achieve best solution. The most areas where flaws occur in decision making includes errors in logic, false assumptions, unreliable memories, Mistaking the symptom for the problem and biases. Main tools for decision making includes empowerment, trust and enablers. Success or Failure on an effort is determined by decision making. We, Human beings do everything on basis of decision making like where to eat, where to live, what type of job to do and more even with what kind of people to be associated with.
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