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According to Joseph Juran’s quality planning road map, first we need to identify and know our customers because customers are the one that will be influenced or affected by the products and processes needed to achieve the quality goals. There are two types of customers, which are internal and external customers. Internal customers refer to those who are a part of our company and also influenced by our activities. While external customers refer to persons or organization that not a part of our company but influenced by our activities.
Next step in Joseph Juran’s quality planning road map is to determine customer needs. Customer needs can be classify into many ways. However according to “Juran on Quality by Design” book, they have classified customer needs into five types of needs. The first two needs are stated needs and real needs. Both of these needs are mutual connectivity between each other. Customers commonly state their needs from what goods that they want to buy. Meanwhile, their real needs are what benefits those goods can give to them. For an example, a customer want to buy a car but what that customer really wants is transportation.
The third needs are perceived needs. Each customer has different perceived needs because perceived needs are based on the customer’s perceptions. Some customer’s perceptions are product-related but some may not. For an example, two men got sick and need to go to the hospital. One goes to a public hospital own by the government sector. The other goes to a private hospital own by the private sector. Each was given with essentially the same medicines. What differs is the price that they need to paid and their perception of what is included in the product or service.
The forth needs is cultural needs. Cultural needs are more to internal customers. In cultural needs it’s involved the concept of cultural pattern. Cultural pattern are the pattern of religions, habits, exercises, styles and many more, that happen in the human society.
The fifth needs are needs traceable to unintended use. Many products or services failed because the customer uses the product or service in an unintended use. For an example, an emergence line number service is used for making a prank calls. So it is important for supplier to make sure that the customers understand the intended use for the product before sale it.
Next is to provide measurement to measure the quality of all the quality planning road map steps. A good quality planning needs a great communication between customers and suppliers. Some of the important information can be properly settle by words. However, an industrial society demands a higher accuracy for communicating quality-related information. This higher accuracy is best attained by numbers. This is because words can’t provide a precision communication. A system of measurement need to be creates to use numbers which consists a unit of measure and a sensor. A unit of measure is an amount of quality attribute to evaluate that attribute in numbers. Such as hours of time to provide gallon of water. A sensor is an item use to state the numbers in unit of measure, such as a ruler to measuring length. Organizing According to Joseph Juran, develop product features and develop process features are included in Joseph Juran’s quality road map. However according to management functions both of them are in organizing.
Developing product features is a way to respond to the customer’s needs. Products are included of goods and services. For example, an office department builds a business process for preparing income statement. Their product is business process. An office accountant then uses that business process to prepare income statement. Their product is income statement. Then companies also need to categories their products, so it will be easier for them to process the product. For example, if the product is income statement then the supplier will be finance and the principal customer will be managers. Companies need to use product development to choose the features that will respond to the customer needs. This product development includes a series of steps. First they need to examine the alternative product features that are available to meeting the customer needs. Then they had created new alternatives. Next, they need to test the alternatives so that they can choose the optimum. Lastly they need to make definition for the product features that they choose. However there also other important part of product development which is product design.
Product design is process to determine the product features that required to meet customer needs. Example for the designer is design engineers. Examples for the end results are procedures and the goals for the product features. Developing process features is a way to able to produce the product features that can meet the customer needs. A process is systematic steps of actions that make to achieve a goal. Human components are included in a process. A process also had some criteria. First criteria are goal oriented, we need to establish a goal before we can start planning. Second is systematic, through a coherent concept all activities that make up a process are interconnected. Third is capable, proper end result is a process that able to meet the product goals. Forth is legitimate, through authorized channels the process is evolved.
Next, we move to process design. Process design is the activity to determine the specific means for the operating forces to used so that the product goals can be achieved. To define those means inputs such as knowledge of the product goals, the operating conditions and the capability of alternative processes are needed. As process designer they always know the intended use for the process, however that does not mean that they know the actual use of the process. So, the designer needs to do a firsthand experience to determine the actual use. There also had process redesign, which is redoing prior of work and hence that was for process design worked. Then there is carryover of process design, by doing carryover the process design cost can be minimal. There is some design that had been used in the processes, which is first design of macroprocesses that is a subdivision.
Next is design for critical processes which represent a danger. Then we also have design to reduce human error because it is a normal things for human to do an error. Leading According to management function, third is leading. However according to Joseph Juran, leading come last after controlling as a support for controlling. There are three basis matters on leading that been used by Joseph Juran to achieve quality planning.
First is to build a data base for the planners. A data base is a table of data obtained from prior cycles of activity, that been classified to help in the conduct of future cycles. Data base is important because a good database can become a great resource for the planners. From prior events we can obtain knowledge that used to build the data base. However, the ways to get the knowledge is depending on the data base. If the data base is a by-product of operations, so the option is universal. Every person who fulfills multiple cycles of continual activities will runs into complication. The experience of that continual activities becomes a part of that person’s data base. That experience itself is a by-product. If the data base is a goal in its own right, so the option is totally opposite. It contains activities in which the plan is to create a data base.
Second is motivating the workers so they perform well in their task. Motivation is an important factor in achieving quality and specially in achieving quality leadership. One of the ways to motive is through recognition. Example of recognition that given to the workers are certificates awarded to workers for completing the training courses. Held dinners to honor the project teams that done well on their work performance. Other ways to motive workers is through reward system. The meaning of reward system is suggested to those wages increases, yearly bonuses and promotions which are the keyed to job performance. An evaluation of job performance needs to be made by using the supervisory judgment to evaluate the workers performance. The supervisory judgment being used because the reward systems needed evaluation of the efforts of individuals even the projects been completed by team efforts.
Third is training the personnel to plan for quality. The company needs to create a training curriculum. Training curriculum is a list of training courses that can meet the training needs for the multidimensional. The multidimensional are first dimension of fundamental concepts, second dimension is the hierarchical level of the trainees, third dimension is the various organization functions, and fourth dimension is the numerous tools and techniques. According to Juran upper managers also need to get training just like another manager’s level. Training for upper managers includes subject matter such as strategic quality management, quality planning and quality audits. Upper managers also need to involve in training the subordinate levels by become trainer for them. Examples of what the upper managers can give as a trainer are information or explanation on the company policies, results, goals and competitive status. For middle managers they need to get a broad-spectrum training program because they have functional and departmental responsibilities. As for first-line supervisors they need in-house trainers and facilitators. In-house trainers will give training that related to the company’s organization, systems, market, technology and so on. Some examples of facilitator’s roles are to assist in team building, in training and in redirecting the project. Next is training for specialists. Examples for specialists are process engineers, product designers and systems analysts. Training for specialists are built around general use tools plus methodology specialty relevant to the specialty. As for workers their training will involve of study of tools for problem solving, pursued by function of those tools to solution of quality-oriented problems. Last is training for trainers which included use of consultants, use of outside training courses, leader train leader and learn for the trainees.
Controlling is the last part in the management functions. However, according to Joseph Juran controlling come first before leading. According to Joseph Juran, process control started with setup control. This control included several stages. First, we need to make a countdown listing the prefatory steps needed to get the process ready to produce. Then made an evaluation of process and product features that will meet the criteria. After that, verification the criteria that had been made to do an assignment of responsibility. After setup control there is running control. Running control takes place regularly during the process operation. Running control is a process to make decision whether the process to produce product should be continue or stop. The process performance is evaluated and measure up with goals. If the process conforms to goals, then it will be continuing but if not, then the process will be stop.
Next is product control, which takes place after production of some amount of product has been made. Reason for this control is to determent whether the product conforms to the product quality goals. The determent of decision must be included with the training and facilities. All of this because to let them able to understand the quality goals, evaluate the actual quality and determent whether there is conformance. The trend now, is more of using automated processes in production. Because of that trend makes production more depending on maintenance of the facilities. Facilities control included elements such as establish a schedule so that facilities maintenance can be conduct, establish a checklist of tasks that need to be done during the maintenance action, train the maintenance squad to carry out the tasks, and assign clear responsibility to comply with the schedule.
Next is self-control, the ideas are responsibility should be individually and coextensive with authority. Self-control is a state where operating squad can carry out all the activities of the feedback loop. But to do self-control the process designer need to provide the operating squad with the means of knowing the target performance and the actual performance that the operating squad need to achieve. And, the means to change their performance if the event does not conform to goals.
Then there is control subject. Control subject is the centered of specific things to be controlled. Control subjects are a mixture of product features, process features and side-effect features. Organization of control usually starts with control stations. For the lower levels of organization, control station can be a single physical area. While for the higher levels of organization, control station can be the scope of a manager’s responsibility. Responsibility for design of process control is done by multifunctional staff planner, operating manager, departmental planner, departmental manager and the workers.