Please note! This essay has been submitted by a student.
Kinnow fruit is one of the most important fruit crop grown in northern India especially in Punjab with 0.180 MMT comprising 50% of the national produce (Sharma et.al.,2013). The production of citrus has flourished the whole world due to its fruit, ornamental and nutraceutical properties. The citrus fruit is enriched with many nutritive, refreshing and medicinal value (Atlaf and khan 2008). According to the National Horticulture Board (NHB-2017) the total Area, Production and Productivity of kinnow is 429300 Ha, 4753900 MT, 11.1 MT/Ha respectively. The Kinnow-mandarin (Citrus reticulate) is the most commonly used fruit among all other citrus fruits. Citrus fruits are grown all over the world in huge numbers as they have large health benefits as well as these have high economic value. Leading states which produce mandarin in India are Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Karnataka. As per (2015-16) national horticulture database, the average production of mandarin orange in India is about 3861 thousand million tones annually. Kinnow is one of the major fruit cultivated in Pakistan and is also produced at larger scale in Punjab ( Khan et al., 2016).
From total of the kinnow fruit production in India about 10-20% is dropped in preharvest stage which is a waste and is the big problem to farmers. (Bhatlu et.al., 2016). About 50% of the production it is being transformed into juices, jams, jellies and rest is discarded as waste (Anonymous, 1996). Citrus peel waste used as biofuel for electrical and thermal energy production after the process of pyrolysis and gasification (Volpo et al., 2015). Nagpur is largest producer of orange in Central Asia, also called as ‘California of India’. As citrus fruits have many health benefits and they have pleasant flavour and refreshing juice, they are consumed as fresh, unprocessed or processed. Citrus fruits are rich in various types of phytochemicals such as vitamin C, flavonoids, carotenoids and limonoids (Igual et al., 2013). The citrus flavonoids exhibit health benefits including their chemoprotective, antimicrobial, anticancer, antiallergic and antiinflammation properties (Benavente et al., 1997; Ram et al., 2006; Bhatlu et al., 2016). Citrus flavonoids also have ability to inhibit the human platelet aggregation (Benavente et al., 1997; Kanadaswami et al., 2005). Additionally, they possess huge amounts of dietary fibre with sufficient quantity of soluble dietary fibres as well as insoluble dietary fibres (Baker 1994; Hosseini et al., 2016).
Kinnow (Citrus reticulata), a hybrid of king and willow leaf, is a variety of citrus fruit. The processing of kinnow fruit yields 50% juice, 25% peel, 23% residue and 2% seeds. A major portion of the kinnow fruit is going waste during processing, which can be exploited for many valuable products. On an average, kinnow peel contains 22.45% solids, 12.5˚B TSS, 1.38% acidity, 41.57 mg/ 100 g ascorbic acid, 6.23% total sugars, 5.99% reducing sugars, 0.67% ash, 13.65 mg/100g carotenoids, 7.43mg/100g beta-carotene, 1.85% pectin and 0.77% fat. It also contains naringin (0.420 mg/g) and limonin (4.69 mg/g) (Kaur and Aggarwal, 2013).