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Fold the circular filter paper in half. Take both ends of the diameter and fold to the top center line that bisects the top of the arc. Fold the edges that are now touching each other backwards so they meet the outer edges. Fold the doubled up side on top of the doubled up side. Place the folded filter paper on the wider mouthed side of a funnel on top of a beaker. Pour the liquid slowly to not overflow the filter. Rinse the inside of the flask with distilled water to gather any remaining aqueous solution left.. This is then poured through the filter and combined with the filtrate.
How to decant a solution from a solid:
First, the solid should set to the bottom of the beaker. Decanting is the process of pouring the top layer of liquid, which leaves the solid residue behind. Use a stirring rod to guide the flow of the liquid.
Attach the funnel to the air hose. Place the paper in the Buchner funnel and then wet the paper. Use the same solvent as the mixture being filtered. Add the mixture immediately. Decant the mixture first. Then, stir the mixture and pour the remaining into the funnel. A rubber policeman can be used to transfer remaining solid. The Buchner funnel is a pressure-assisted faster mode of filtration. Her the vacuum is an aspirator.
Apparatus for heating liquids in beaker and for heating solid or liquid in test tube over flame.
To use a bunsen burner, connect rubber end of tube to a gas valve. Securely fasten an iron ring to a ring stand so that the ring is slightly above the tip of a gas burner, which should be placed on the ring stand base. You may place the burner beneath the wire gauze for a slower rate of heating, reduce the intensity of the burner flame. Adjust gas supply to vary the size of the flame. light your gas burner and adjust it to produce a hot flame. Use a test tube clamp is hold test tube over flame. The mouth of the test tube should open away from you. Gently move the test tube back and forth so all contents in the test tube get heated.
TD and TC is used to decide what kind of glassware to use. TD stands for “To Deliver” while TC stands for “To Contain.” TD Glassware includes graduated cylinder, pipets, and buret. All the measured liquid must be delivered. On the other hand, volumetric flasks are TC glassware because when inverted, they will only function to hold a certain volume of liquid.
Beakers are the least accurate because of their large meniscus.Graduated cylinders are useful for measuring any volume and have smaller meniscuses than beakers. Plastic pipets are used when the exact volume does not matter. Apart than volumetric pipets, certain measurements are assumed, like 1 drop from a pipet is 0.05 mL. Burets, are thin tubes with many tiny markings, and are used to transfer exact volumes. Because burets are so thin, the meniscus is much smaller so there is less human error. Volumetric flasks are the most accurate measuring device because they hold a predetermined amount of liquid.
Process for making solutions of a given molarity from a solid solute.
Weigh the correct mass of the solute. Dissolve the solute in a smaller, less than the desired total, amount of water. Dilute the solution to the desired volume.
Correct way to dilute concentrated acids. Explain
Use the most diluted possible acid solution. Work in a fume hood and war appropriate safety attire. Use the dilution equation M1V1 = M2V2 to find the amount of acid needed to create the volume of desired acid. If the acid is for a quantitative experiment, use a volumetric flasks. Mostly, Erlenmeyer flasks are enough. Add half of the desired volume in water. Water is acting as a heat sink. Measure the acid into a graduated cylinder. A funnel can be used to funnel the acid. Then, dilute to the final volume.