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Equipment Using in Laboratory Experiment

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When pouring chemicals from one vessel to another, and they can also be fitted with a filter to separate solids from liquids. Separatory funnels are also used for filtration and extraction, having a bulb-shaped enclosed body fitted with a stopper on the top to prevent spillage when the funnel is inverted, along with a stopcock at the spout’s base which can be used to gradually lower the bulbs internal pressure.

Graduated Cylinders

These are tall narrow containers used for measuring volume, the are made up of plastic. While they are more accurate than beakers, measuring their contents to within one percent of actual volume, they are not used for quantitative analysis of fluids that require a high degree of precision. Graduated cylinders are fitted with a”bumper ring”, a ring that provide support and shields the glass from impacting the work surfaces if the cylinder ‘s top for maximum protection.

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Pipets

These are used to draw precisely measured amounts of fluids from a receptacle. Volumetric pipets are crafted to draw one specific quantity of a sample while Mohr pipets have graduations that allow the lab to draw the fluid into the pipet. A lab pipet’s open end into the solution and release the bulb to collect her desired quantity of fluid.

Volumetric Flasks

These are used to create precise quantities of solutions. A graduation line is etched into the volumetric flask’s neck to indicate volume and the lab worked begin to fill the flask by first adding the solute.

Test Tube

A test tube also known as a culture tube or sample tube ,is a common piece of laboratory glassware consisting of a finger like length of glass and mouth has a opening, in some special types of test tubes there is a cover or plug.

Bunsen Burner

It is named after Robert Bunsen,is a common piece of laboratory equipment that produces a single gas flame,which is used for heating,sterilisation,and combustion.

Inoculating Loops

This is also called as smear loop ,inoculation wand or microstreaker, is a simple tool used mainly by microbiologists to recover an inoculum from a culture of microorganism. The loops is used in the cultivation of microorganisms. The loop is used in the cultivation of microbes on plates by transfering inoculum to slides or petri plates.

Waterbath

It is a laboratory equipment made from a container filled with heated water. It is used to incubate samples in water at a constant temperature over a long period of time. All water baths have digital or analogue interface to allow users to set a desired temperature. Utilisations include warming of reagents, melting of substrates or incubation of chemical to occur at high temperature. Water bath is a prefered heat source for heating flammable chemicals instead of an open flame to prevent ignition. It can be used up to 99.9 c.

Laboratory Instruments

These are also known as scientific instruments. A device or tool used for scientific purposes, including the study of both natural phenomena and theoritical research. Scientific instrument vary greatly in size, shape, purposes and complications. This includes relatively simple laboratory equipment like scales, rulers, chronometers, thermometers etc.

Some examples are:

  • Autoclave
  • Sterilizers
  • Balancers and moisture analysers
  • Bath and chillers
  • Calorimeter
  • Centrifuges
  • Chromatography
  • Electrophoresis
  • Hot plates
  • Incubators
  • Ovens and furnaces
  • Water purification

Autoclave

An autoclave is a pressure chamber used to carry out industrial processes requiring elevated temperature and pressure different from ambiet air pressure. Autoclaves are used in medical applications to perform sterilization and in the chemical industry to cure coatings and vulcanize rubber and for hydrothermal synthesis. They are also used in industrial applications, especially regarding composites. Many autoclaves are used to sterilize equipment and supplies by subjecting them to high pressure saturated steam at 121 c for around 15-20 minutes depending on the size of the load and the contents. The autoclave was invented by Charles chamberland in 1884, although a precusor known as the steam digester was created by Denis Papin in 1679. The name comes from Greek auto,ultimately meaning self,and latin clavis meaning key,thus a self-locking device.

Uses

Sterilisation autoclaves are widely used in microbiology, medicine, podiatry, tattooing, body piercing,veterinary medicine, mycology, funery practise, dentistry and prosthetics fabrication.

Autoclaves are also widely used to cure composites and in the vulcanization of rubber.

The high heat and pressure that autoclave allow help to ensure that the best possible physical properties are repeatable. The aerospace industry and sparmakers have autoclave well over 50 feet long,someover10 feet wide.

Other types of autoclave are used to grow crystals under high temperature and pressure.

Sterilisers

Sterilization refer to any process that eliminates ,remove,kills or ,deactivate all forms of life and other biological agent present in a specified region ,such as a surface ,a volume of fluid,medication,or in a compound such as biological culture media. The equipments used for sterilisation are known as sterilisers. This can be done by het, chemicals, irradiation, high pressure and filtration.

Balancers and Moisture Analysers

Moisture analysis covers a variety of methods for measuring moisture content in both high level and trace amounts in solids, liquid, or gases. Moisture in percentages amounts is monitored as a specification in commercial foods production. Trace moisture in solids must be controlled for plastics, pharmaceuticals and heat treatment processes. Gas or liquid measurement application include dry air, hydrocarbon processing, pure semiconductor gases, bulk pure gases, dielectric gases such as those in transformers and power plants, and natural gas pipeline tranport.

Bath and Chillers

Chiller is a machine that removes heat from a liquid via a vapor compression or absoption refrigeration cycle. This liquid can then be circulated through a heat exchanger to cool equipment, or another process stream. As a necessary by product, refrigeration creates waste heat that must be exhausted to the ambience, or for greater eficiency, recovered for heating purposes.

Calorimeter

An apparatus for measuring the amount of heat involve in a chemical reaction or other process. A simple calorimeter just consists of a thermometer attached to metal container full of water suspended above a combustion chamber. It is one of the measurement devices used in the study of thermodynamics, chemistry and biochemistry.

Centrifuges

A laboratory centrifuge is a piece of laboratory equipment, driven by a motor, which spins liquid sample at high speed. There are various types of centrifuges, depending on the size and the sample capacity. This centrifuges work on the sedimentation principle, where the centipetal acceration is used to separate substances of greater and lesser density.

Chromatography

Is a technique for separation of a mixture. The mixture is dissolved in a fluid called the mobile phase, which carries it through a structure holding another material called the stationary phase. The various constituents of the mixture travel at different speeds, causing them to separate. The separation is based on differential partitioning between the mobile and stationary phases. Chromatography may be preparative or analytical. The purposes of preparative chromatography is separate the components of a mixture for us later use, and thus form of purification.

Electrophoresis

Is the motion of dispered particles relative to a fluid under the influence of a spatially uniform electric field. Electrophoresis of positively charged particle is sometimes called cataphoresis, while electrophoresis of negatively charged particle is sometimes called anaphoresis. Electophoresis is used in laboratories to separate macromolecules based on size. The technique applies a negative charge so proteins move towards apositive charge. Electrophoresis is used for both DNA and RNA analysis.

Hot Plate

A hot plate is a portable self contained tabletop small appliance that feature one,two or more electric heating element or gas burners. A hot plate can be used as a stand alone appliance, but is often used as a substitute for one of the burners from an oven range or a kitchen stove. Hot plates are often used for food preparation generally in locations where a full kitchen stove would not be convenient or practical. A hot plate can have a flat surface, or round surface. Hot plate can be used for travelling or in area without electricity.

Incubators

An incubator is a device used to grow and maintain microbiology cultures or cell culture. The incubator maintains optimal temperature, humidity and other conditions such as the carbon dioxide and oxygen content of the atmosphere inside. Incubators are essential for a lot of experimental work in cell biology and are used to culture both bacterial as well as eukaryotes cells.

Ovens and Furnaces

A furnace is a device used for high temperature heating. The heat energy to fuel a furnace may be supplied directly by fuel combustion, by electricity such as the electric arc furnace, or through induction heating in induction furnaces.

It is used in chemical plants, for providing heat to chemical reactions for processes like cracking.

Water Purification

Is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended solids and gases from water. The goal is to produce water fit for a specific purpose. Most water is disinfected for human consumption, but water purification may also be designed for a arequirements of medicals, pharmacological The methods used include physical processes such as filtrate, sedimentation and distillation; biological active carbon; chemical processes such as flocculation and chlorination and the use of electromagnetic radiations such as UV.

Stock Solution

A stock solution is a concentrated solution that will be diluted to some lower concentration for actual use.Stock solution are used to save preparation time,conserve materials,reduce storage space,and improve the accuracy with which working lower concentration solutions are prepared. A stock solution is a large volume of a common reagent, such as hydrochloric acid or sodium hydroxide,at a standarized concentration.The term is commonly used in analytical chemistry for procedures such as titration, where it is important that exact concentration of solutions are used.Stock solution do not necessarily come in concentration of simple number; for example ,a solution could be 0.10082M HCL.

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