The Meaning and Process of Risk Assessment in Machine Safety

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Table of Contents

  • Introduction to Machinery Safety
  • Why is Machinery Safety Important?
  • Do’s of Machine Safety
  • Don’t of Machine Safety
  • Comparison of Legislation Related to Machine Safety Between Pakistan and Europe
  • Europe
  • Implementation of Risk Assessment in Work Place
  • Objectives
  •  Machine Safety
  • Objectives
  • Ergonomics
  • Risk Assessment
  • Main Philosophy of Hybrid Method
  • Risk Assessment of Boiler
  • High Fuel Temperature
  • Risk Assessment
  • Gas Line Leaks
  • Risk Assessment
  • Steam Leaks
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Assessment of Fuel Gas Packages
  • Recessed Cylinders
  • Risk Assessment
  • Overheating of cylinders
  • Risk Assessment
  • Incorrect Handling of Cylinders
  • Risk Assessment
  • Conclusion

Introduction to Machinery Safety

The machinery segment is a significant part of any industry. Machinery contains a gathering or consists of a group of components associated together for a specific approach. Machinery safety is a standout amongst the most difficult issue which is looked at by relatively every assembling organization. It is not vital for profitability but at the same time is urgent and crucial for the welfare of everybody included. The vendor and the purchaser need to cooperate for safe machinery.

There are controls for the security of the client and are several regulations related to safety of machines and working environments. These directions may change as indicated by the provincial difference. Statistics on machinery fatalities 2000 – 2010 is included in figure 2 along with another pie chart, showing death due to machinery 2008 – 2017 in figure 3, presented by Health & Safety Authority [10]. Also, a graph in figure 4, showing fatal injury rates by different industries. Table 1 shows number of non-fatal and fatal accidents at work, 2015 (persons) selected from an article which presents a set of main statistical findings in relation to indicators concerning non-fatal and fatal accidents at work in the European Union (EU).

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Why is Machinery Safety Important?

Injuries can be caused in several ways by use of machinery and not only human injuries but also equipment failure and economic losses due to loss of production. People can be struck and harmed by moving parts of machinery or rejected material. Parts of the body can likewise be caught between rollers, belts and pulley drives.

Sharp edges can cause wounds and cuts, similarly, sharp-pointed parts can cut the skin, and unpleasant surface parts can cause a grating or scraped area. People can damage their body parts, both between parts moving together or towards a settled piece of the machine, divider or another protest, and shearing can be produced by two sections moving past each other.

Machine parts removing material chips and emissions (like water or steam) can be severe enough to consume or singes. Electric shock can be caused by electricity. Injuries can also be caused because of faults produced in machinery or because of lack of training or inexperience [1].

Do’s of Machine Safety

Properly check that machine is fit to be utilized and well sustained, i.e. suitable for the activity and working legitimately and that all the safety measures are set up monitors, isolators, locking instruments, crisis off switches and so on.

Utilize the machine appropriately and as per the manufacturer’s directions. Make sure that anyone using the machinery is properly dressed and not wearing loose clothes, and required equipment like noise reducer, safety shoes, and glasses.

Don’t of Machine Safety

Utilize a machine or apparatus that has a risk sign or label attached to it. Danger signs should just be removed by an authorized individual who is fulfilled that the machine or process is currently protected. Wear dangling chains, loose clothing, rings or have free, long hair that could become involved with moving parts.

Distracting individuals who are utilizing machines. Remove any protections, regardless of whether their essence appears to make the activity more troublesome [2].

Comparison of Legislation Related to Machine Safety Between Pakistan and Europe


European Directives set out minimum pre-essentials and crucial benchmarks, in like manner chance evaluation and counteractive action standard, and the commitments of representatives and managers. A movement of European guidelines hopes to support the execution of European orders and European principles which are actualized by European Standardization affiliations. Hardware Directives depicts a gathering fitted with or anticipated to be formfitting with an activity framework other than unswervingly connected manual or creature exertion, comprising of joined parts, least one of which is moving and associated with each other for measured applications.

In Europe, hardware security is controlled and synchronized by the Machinery Directive to ensure the foundation and working of the interior market and to affirm an abnormal state of assurance of individuals' wellbeing and wellbeing and of the earth (Directive 2006/42/EC, 2006). The Machinery Directive portrays that the maker must do a hazard evaluation for the apparatus that it intends to put available. The Machinery Directive applies to singular separate machines as well as for hardware frameworks, where the last are characterized as 'congregations of apparatus' [3] [13].

Additionally, there are obligations on designers and producers of hardware in the Machinery Directive . They have been then transposed into national law by the 2008 European Communities (Machinery) Regulations . In this way, these Regulations apply to finished and partially finished hardware, exchangeable equipment, machine related safety parts, chains, ropes and webbing, and removable mechanical transmission gadgets, for example, PTO shafts. This Directive likewise applies to the import second-hand machines, into the European Union making the shipper in charge of bringing the apparatus into conformity [13].


In Pakistan, there is no self-sufficient enactment on proficient wellbeing and medical problems. The essential law, which regulates these issues, is the Factories Act, 1934. Every one of the regions, under this showing, have considered Factories Rules. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Sindh have organized the Factories enactment in 2013 and 2016, separately. The Hazardous Occupations Rules, 1963 under the authority of Factories Act is another apropos authorization. These measures not simply show some risky occupations (working with Lead; Aerated Waters; Rubber; Chromium; Cellulose Solution Spraying; Sand Blasting; Sodium and Potassium-Bichromates; Petrol Gas Generating Plant) yet likewise support the Chief Inspector of Factories to report some other methodology as perilous.

[15] The organization called Saeed Ahmed Awan Centre for Improvement of Working Conditions & Environment (SAACIWCE) Lahore is a forerunner institution in Pakistan. This institute provide professional services in the fields of occupational, safety, health and working environment. SAACIWCE is part of the Labor & Human Resource Department, Government of the Punjab, Pakistan. SAACIWCE worked on different safety aspects and safety manuals (in Urdu language) which are specially related to textile/fabric industry. These manuals are published in September 2016 and are prepared by Arshad Mehmood.

Implementation of Risk Assessment in Work Place


  • Participating in diagnosis and diagnosis of dangers at workplace
  • Evaluation of the risks associated with workplace
  • Preparing preferences for health and safety
  • Implementation of the steps taken for health and safety

 Machine Safety


  • Effectively at workplace
  • Manufacturing of machinery and equipment for the use in garment industry
  • Running and taking full care of machinery and equipment in the garment industry
  • To improve the work environment by following the health and safety practices


The other related laws in Pakistan are:

  1. Dock Laborers Act, 1934.
  2. Mines Act, 1923.
  3. Workmen Compensation Act, 1923.
    • Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Workers’ Compensation Act, 2013.
    • Sindh Workers Compensation Act, 2016.
  4. Provincial Employees Social Security Ordinance, 1965.
    • The Sindh Employees Social Security Act, 2016.
  5. West Pakistan Shops and Establishments Ordinance, 1969.
    • The KPK Shops and Establishment Act, 2015.
    • The Sindh Shops and Commercial Establishments Act, 2015.
  6. Boilers and Pressure Vessels Ordinance, 2002.
  7. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act, 1997 (Hazardous Substance Rules, 2003).
  8. The Agricultural Pesticides Ordinance, 1971 (The Agricultural Pesticide Rules, 1973).
  9. West Pakistan Labor Camps Rules, 1960.

Risk Assessment

ISO-14121 gives the coherent bearing on the main of peril evaluations for equipment in comprehension with ISO 14121-1 and delineates diverse techniques and gadgets for every development, all the while. It moreover gives the open course on chance lessening (according to ISO 12100) for equipment, giving the additional bearing on the assurance of fitting protective measures for achieving security. The normal customers of this bit of ISO-14121 are those related to the mix of security into the blueprint, foundation or change of contraption (e.g. fashioners, specialists, security experts).

The purpose of risk assessment is to recognize dangers and to check and evaluate peril with the objective that it can be diminished. There are various techniques and gadgets open thus and a couple is delineated in this record. The methodology or gadget picked will include industry, association or individual tendency. The choice of a system or instrument is less basic than the methodology itself. The upsides of risk assessment start from the compass of the methodology instead of the exactness of the results: if an efficient approach is taken to get from peril recognizing evidence to danger diminish, each one of the segments of danger is considered. Adding guarded measures to a diagram can construct expenses and point of confinement the workplace of use of the machine if included after an arrangement has been settled or the mechanical assembly itself has recently been manufactured.

Changes to equipment are generally more reasonable and more practical at the blueprint sort out, so it is great to perform risk assessment during equipment design [5]. The risk assessment is performed eventually when the arrangement is finished up when a model exists and after the equipment has been being utilized for quite a while. Besides at the layout orchestrate, during advancement and in the midst of charging, risk assessment can in like manner be performed in the midst of redress or change of mechanical assembly or at later to survey existing equipment, e.g. because of debacles or breakdowns. The feasibility of executed cautious measures ought to be checked before the doing of further emphases.

Main Philosophy of Hybrid Method

EN ISO 13849-1 (Safety of apparatus, Safety-related parts of control frameworks, General standards for configuration) is the standard that supplanted, EN 954-1 (Safety of hardware, Safety-related parts of control frameworks, General standards for outline), EN 954-1 was totally pulled back toward the finish of 2011. In the view of necessities of IEC 61508, EN 62061 blended to machinery directive is an apparatus part standard. Now as far as the decision is concerned, it is affected by the significant elements.

Now it doesn’t matter whichever gauge you take first, the result it yields are particularly same. One out of the four levels is used to determine the severity and injury of the hazard. Same is the case with probability as it is determined by three parameters. When all these three are added they make a class. Then in order to make target function the class is plotted against severity and all the parameters are measured to make them valid to machinery-based hazards and regulate the performance of conservative machinery tools.

In the spreadsheet, the different hazards are arranged, and their probability of occurrence is determined. The spreadsheet also becomes able to determine the number of events happening at the frequency of hazard. The avoidance is judged on bases of frequency and probability of a hazard. Each hazard is assigned a specified number and evaluated accordingly.

Hybrid risk assessment methodology combines both the aspects of the quantitative and qualitative risk assessments. Quantitative data may be used as an input to analyses the risk assessment while the qualitative data can be used as an output to analyses the risk assessment. That is why this model is known as a hybrid risk assessment methodology.

In the Hybrid Risk Assessment Methodology (HRAM) at the first step, the risk identification is performed using Hierarchical Holographic Modeling (HHM). HHM emphasizes the two or more multiple views from difference characteristics. By analyzing systems along functional, temporal, modal, geographic, political etc., one can develop a list that identifies sources of risk, with respect to all aspects of the system. The second step is an assessment of the risks through Enterprise Risk management (ERM). ERM is a rigorous approach to assessing and addressing the risks from all sources that threaten the achievement of an organization’s strategic objectives.

ERM considers activities at all levels of the organization including enterprise-level, division or subsidiary, and business unit processes. In this section, our group would like to use the ERM framework to identify risk, access risk and define risk response for each risk factor. The third and final step is to avoid and mitigate risks using Business Continuity Planning (BCP). It is a collection of policies, procedure, protocols and information that is developed, compiled and maintained in readiness for use in the event of a business interruption. The BCP lists out the steps which an organization needs to act in order to resume its service and business as soon as possible.

Risk Assessment of Boiler

The boiler is the main and central component of many industries. It has many hazards. Few of its main hazards are discussed below.

  1. High fuel temperature
  2. Gas line leaks
  3. Steam Leaks
  4. Fire/Explosion

High Fuel Temperature

Improper thermostat settings and obstruction in the steam control valve causes this hazard. This hazard causes poor atomization in the boiler, oil gasification, unstable flame boiler damage, property damage, and loss of life. To prevent this hazard heater and control needs to be checked periodically.

Risk Assessment

  1. As this hazard causes the death of personnel, so its severity is marked as 4.
  2. Its interval between exposures in more than a year thus its frequency is 2.
  3. It is unlikely that this component will fail and cause this hazard thus the probability is 2.
  4. Its avoidance is impossible (5).
  5. Its value of the class is 9.

Gas Line Leaks

Excessive pressure in the boiler, damage to pipes and fittings, leaking gasket and improperly assembled joints causes this hazard of the boiler. This hazard causes an explosion and fire. To avoid it all pipes, fittings, and valves must be kept in good repair.

Risk Assessment

  1. As this hazard causes the death of personnel, so its severity is marked as 4.
  2. Its interval between exposure is between 2 weeks and a year thus its frequency is 3.
  3. It is a possible event thus the probability is 3.
  4. Its avoidance is impossible (5).
  5. Its value of the class is 11.

Steam Leaks

Damaged or corroded pipes and other parts causes this hazard. Its effect is the severe burn of the human skin. To avoid this hazard all joints and pipes must be kept tight.

Risk Assessment

  1. As this hazard causes severe burn (permanent injury), so its severity is marked as 3.
  2. Its interval between exposure is between 2 weeks and a year thus its frequency is 3.
  3. It is likely that this component will fail and cause this hazard thus the probability is 4.
  4. Its avoidance is possible (3).

Risk Assessment of Fuel Gas Packages

The hazards associated with fuel gas packages are as follows:

  1. Recessed cylinders
  2. Overeating of cylinders due to temperature or nearby ignition
  3. Incorrect handling of cylinders.

Recessed Cylinders

Injury to persons or damage to property can be caused if cylinders are accessed. Its range of effect is persons or property within the cylinder storage area or in the surrounding area.

Risk Assessment

  1. Since it can cause the death of nearby people or catastrophic destruction, so its severity is marked 04.
  2. Its interval between exposures is over a year so its frequency is 02
  3. It is unlikely that this component will fail and cause this hazard thus the probability is 02.
  4. Its avoidance is impossible, so avoidance is 05.
  5. Its value of the class is 9.

Overheating of cylinders

External fire or heat impacting on cylinders in storage could cause catastrophic failure of the cylinders due to overheating. Its rage of effect is also persons or property within the cylinder storage area or in the surrounding area.

Risk Assessment

  1. Since it can cause the death of nearby people or catastrophic destruction, so its severity is marked 04.
  2. Its interval between exposures is over a year so its frequency is 02
  3. It is unlikely that the ignition is brought near to the cylinder or it is kept in the high-temperature area, so its probability is 02
  4. Its avoidance is impossible, so avoidance is 05.
  5. Its value of the class is 9.

Incorrect Handling of Cylinders

Injury to persons or damage to property if cylinders or package is handled incorrectly by unauthorized persons. Its area of effect is peoples or property in the vicinity of the cylinder.

Risk Assessment

  1. Since it can cause reversible injury to nearby people, so its severity is marked 03.
  2. Its interval between exposures is from 24 hours to 2 weeks so its frequency is 05
  3. It is likely to happen due to negligence or by untrained labor, so its probability is 04
  4. Its avoidance is possible, so avoidance is 03.
  5. Its value of the class is 12.


Machinery Safety is an essential perspective to maintain a strategic distance from serious harm or damage caused by moving machine parts. Diverse do's and don'ts are additionally basic parts of apparatus wellbeing. Examination of European and Pakistani enactment speaks to that Pakistan is far separated from European enactment in giving wellbeing estimations. Numerous laws are made yet are very little power. Risk assessment is done by gathering information and after that recognizing the peril factors.

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