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Main Pluses of Sexuality in Animals

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Evolution of Sexuality in Animals

Scientists estimated that about 99% of all eukaryotes reproduce sexually. Cats reproduce sexually, fish reproduce sexually, but why all those animals reproduce sexually? Wouldn’t be easier if they reproduced asexually, after all reproducing asexually only need one species, and it can pass on its genes. So when evolution decided that sexual reproduction is the way of life. Scientists have been trying for so long to figure how sex became the way of reproduction.

I read many articles about evolution, and specifically evolution of sexual reproduction. Biologist were able to figure how life started in this earth and it developed. They were able to explain how an amoeboid developed in many species to become complex animals throughout the evolution. But, biologist never got to explain when exactly all the animals became as a female and male, and when they developed their sexual organs, and became separate genders. At some point during evolution of all species, it was necessity to have the existence of male and female to continue the recreation for some specie, and without it evolution was not going to through the same path. But how that that can be described, and how it happened. How would a biologist answer to a question like how evolution created female and male? And how did evolution change a species to species that can produce eggs (Female), and to another specie that can produce sperm (Male)? How those eggs and sperms developed to contain exactly half of chromosomes number, that comes from the male and female that produced them. Sex and sexual reproduction seems to be the top of the dilemmas that biologist faces when explaining evolution and the development of creatures. Mark Ridley (2000) mentioned in his book the cooperative gene that sex contain many advantages, otherwise sex would existed, it wouldn’t be a part of the evolution path (P. 254).

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This first theory that came to explain the existence of sexual reproduction, was by George C. William in his book monograph, Sex and Evolution. [1] Many evolutionary biologist came up with theories the advantages of sexual. Sexual reproduction add genes from male and from female, and in that way it can be very easy to combine the beneficial genes, from both parents, unlike in a sexual reproduction. If there is few beneficial genes that raised in different organs of that sexual population those different beneficial gens can be reproduced within that population in their offspring if they were to be combined. But in the other hand if the same beneficial genes raised in different organs in asexual population those beneficial gens would take a lot longer to be combined with the same member. The only that asexual can combine more beneficial genes is when the organ’s chromosome evolve a different allele so it can create a new beneficial genes by itself. [2] The other advantage of sexual reproduction is that the members of sexual reproduction have a higher resistance to disease that is caused by parasites. The red queen hypothesis that first formulated by Leigh Valen in 1973 stated all groups of living organisms always in persistent changing and this is the only way to compete and survive. It would be very easy to lose the competition to the surrounding species if a specie stopped changing and the surrounding species kept on changing. A good example would be competition of changing between the parasites and the hosts. They both in seems to in continuous war, the parasite force the host to evolve because if it didn’t it could die and extinct, and the host force the parasites to evolve, because it becoming more resistant to the parasites and the parasites have to evolve and overcome these resistance. The red queen theory is a great significance, it clarify the ambiguity of diversity of genetics, animals sexual reproduction. The population members with faster generation time will have the capability to evolve quicker. This would give this population an advantage when it is in companions with other species, this would need a way to make evolution quicker. Sexual reproduction seems the way that evolution choose to speed up, the reason for that is sexual reproduction allows merging alleles quicker, by spreading the mutation in the population [3].


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