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Manufacturing Processes Of The Center Laths And The Milling Machine

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In this report I will be explaining the operations of the center laths and the milling machine. I will also be comparing the differences between a specialist machining process and a traditional machining process.

The 4 jaws on the chuck hold objects in place. The 4 jaw chuck is mainly designed to hold square and rectangle shapes but it can still be used for circular shape objects.

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Good practice is to be sure that the work space is clear and all power is cut off from the machine. Although the chuck guard has a safety feature which will cut power to the machine while it is up, it is a good habit to make sure the power is turned off anyway.

The first step to take to fitting a 4 jaw chuck is to make sure the backplate and spindle are thoroughly cleaned and very lightly oiled. You then need to screw the backplate on using hand pressure only.

The next step is to find a suitable bar, mount it between centres and allow the tailstock to apply a little pressure towards the headstock. Doing this will eliminate any spindle end-play (if it exists).

The advantage of a 4 jaw is that it is much more versatile than the 3 jaw chuck because it can hold different shaped bar stock (round, square, rectangular and unique shape castings).

Traditional machining

Five examples of machining operation are:

  • Facing off – Facing off is when you remove the face of your piece. This is done to reduce the length of the peice or to smoothen the face of the object.
  • Turning a diameter – Turning a diameter is when you reduce the diameter of the piece. This is done by placing the cutting tool on the edge of the circumference of the piece. Then you need
  • Turning a chamfer – This is when you cut the edges of the piece to a 45 degree angle. This is done to make it easier for the diy and it also removes sharp edges which is a factor in health and safety.
  • Turn a taper – Turning a taper can have two purposes. They can either be ornamental or a mechanical function or they can be both. If the taper is for an ornamental purpose than the angle of the taper does not matter as it has no use other than to make it look finished.

For mechanical tapers are used to lock into one another this means that the angle of the taper hs t be very precise. The purpose of reversing the jaws is to fit much larger jaws in order to hold larger items to drill through.

Examples of machining operations that are carried out with reversed jaws:

  • Larger object (inch)Disk
  • Larger metal piece (diameter + length)
  • Length that requires support of a tailstock center.

Efficiency of Traditional machines

Traditional machinings are not very efficient. This is because traditional machinings need to be connected to a power source in order for it to function. The power can either come from renewable or non renewable energy. The reason traditional machines are not efficient is because compared to the amount of energy it consumes the products it produces is not efficient in terms of production to energy consumption ratio it is not efficient, this could have a big impact on the environment and the company that uses the machine would end up losing then gaining from the machine.

Types of Specialist machines

Press Forming – This is when a sheet of metal is heated. Once it is heated the metal is more flexible and it can be shaped. The sheet of metal is then securely clamped and it is pressed into its desired shape using a male plug. Press forming is usually done in batches this is because this process can be done very quickly and it would be more efficient to do them in large quantities.

EDM (Electro discharge machining) – This is when a spark is created when it gets in contact with the metal, the spark has a very high current with a very high voltage, this results in creating an immense amount of heat. The heat will cut the metal by melting it and it will form the shape its programmed to. This process is very accurate but because it takes some time it isn’t done in large quantities.

Broaching – This is a process where a cutting tool is pushed and pulled through the hole in order to remove the metal using axial force. This can smoothen the surface at the same time this is done by the three different cutting surfaces. The cutting surfaces are roughing teeth, semi finishing teeth and finishing teeth.

Center Lathe

The Centre Lathe is used to manufacture cylindrical shapes from a variety of materials which are mainly plastic and steel. Lathes can either be operated by a computer or a human. La. A basic manual centre lathe is shown below. This type of lathe is controlled by a person turning the various handles on the top slide and cross slide in order to make a product / part.


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