The reformation, according to the source, was leaded by two major figures- John Calvin and Martin Luther. The source describes the fact that the Roman Catholic church, even though a religious group under the Pope, and though it did not have a country to its name, it had churches all over Europe. The church thus was a huge political force, as it could control the monarchies with the money and influence the church had to its name, thus it was in control of almost all of Europe. Thus it could be the people by using them for their money, threatening them with hell and damnation, adn this could be done because only the priests could understand the bible, as it was written in Latin. However, Martin Luther’s theses caused a great divide. His works, largely the 95 theses, caused an event known today as the “Protestant Revolution”, which not only caused a revolution within the church, but affected the lives of almost all people living in Europe in the 16th century, either socially, politically or economically.
The source states that this was largely due to the fact that the church as so influential, so influencing the church means influencing the leaders of the 1500s. The source also debates that Luther was not the first figure to argue that the church was corrupt, but that the reformation was inevitable, as many Luther’s predecessors had suggested. Luther’s theses, and therefore the reformation as a result, sparked other reformations in churches all over Europe, which caused new denominations within the church, as a result of divides and disagreements, which is why there are so many denominations in Christianity as a whole. His works particularly influenced a man by the name of Huldrych Zwingli, who influenced Zurich, in Germany, who caused another denomination to form.
Another such man was John Calvin, from who Calvinism is named after, and his movement merged with Zwingli’s into a denomination called Reformed Christianity. His reformation was so successful, that Lutheranism became supremely dominant by the middle of the 1500s, as it spread to other countries in Europe. However, some countries, especially in the East of Europe, namely Spain and Italy, were not affected by Martin Luther and the reformation. In England, the reformation caused England to form a new church- the anglican church, under the rule of Henry VIII. Luther also influenced a man by the name of John Knox, who established the denomination of Presbyterianism, which in turn made it possible for Scotland and England to united together.
This source is useful because it helps to determine the effects the reformation had not only within Germany, where Martin Luther was based, and where the reformation first took place, but in all of Europe. The source also counters the fact that Luther was the sole historical figure to trigger the reformation or question the corruption the church. The source is also valuable to the topic question, as it lists some of the effects the reformation had on Europe, and on the church of Europe f that time- how it caused division, and ultimately a spiritual revolution.
The source is reliable because it comes from Encyclopaedia Britannica, which is a reliable historical site which has been running for many years. The source is continuously updated and edited, to make sure that the information is reliable and factual. This means that the source can be trusted. The source is also objective, as it makes sure to consider no sides, and remain unbiased and factual.
The findings in this source are valid, as the facts have been carefully researched and edited by multiple people, and therefore the facts stated within the source are valid. The facts stated in this particular source are corroborated by many other sources, and therefore their facts match up with the actual history. The source does not deal so much with the social, economic and political effects, as it does with the religious effects within the church all across Europe. It also does not focus on Martin Luther as much, and rather uses him, along with the other figures of the reformation, and tries to shift the spotlight onto others,and not just him.
The source is relevant to the topic, as it deals directly with the most significant effect – the religious effect on the church. This effect, as the source reiterates the fact the the religious aspect of the reformation, influential all the other aspects of Europe in the 16th. Thus it is relevant to the topic, because it deals with the effects and the impact it had on almost all of Europe in the 1500s. The source also provides as different side to the reformation: that it was not only Martin Luther and his 95 theses which triggered the reformation, which changed so much of Europe, and turned it largely into the Europe we know today.
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