Please note! This essay has been submitted by a student.
Sunita Reddy and Imran Qadeer did a case study on “Medical Tourism in India: Progress or Predicament?” in the year 2010.The term Medical Tourism was coined by travel agencies and the mass media to describe the rapidly growing practice of travelling across international borders to obtain hi-tech medical care. The then finance minister Jaswant Singh said that India was becoming a global health destination. India provides medical facilities at a very cheaper rate as compared to the west. It is not only cheap but also quality care is provided. India’s health care service draw clients from neighbouring countries like Bangladesh, Nepal etc.
Sabine (2009) studied about “The Risk of Malaria in Travellers to India”. The results found out were that the number of malaria cases had declined from 1992 to 2005. The high-risk states of malaria in India are Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Goa and the states east of Bangladesh. According to the World Health Organisation data from 2004 show a high risk of malaria in Goa. A study conducted on “Role of Medical Tourism in India: Issue and opportunities.” By Abuhulla (2019) found out that there are many more micro factors that attract medical tourists such as comfort of getting a donor for heart, kidney or liver transplant being legal in India. It’s tough to say if Medical tourism will touch the high level of projection by 2020, but increase in number will guarantee India a strong hold in international healthcare market.
In June 2002, Ligia Noronha studied about “Goa: Tourism, Migrations, and Ecosystem Transformations”. The study was based on three coastal villages namely Calangute, Anjuna and Cavelosim. It focussed on the effects of population movement, economic and social changes in the ecosystem. In all the three villages land cover has considerably declined its growth of coconut groves, wet lands etc. This is because of the new tourism infrastructure. The beaches are congested with houses and hotel complexes. Goa is host to all types of tourists be it domestic, international, backpack travellers etc. Tourist arrivals in Goa have increased during the last 8 years.
A number of guest houses, hotels also emerged as tourism grew. People in the three villages earned income through renting of houses, taxis, motorcycles etc. The high standardof living in Goa brought about in-migration. But it’s not only the in-migrants who cause land use and cover change but also the out-migrants and the host population through changing consumption.
A study entitled “Domestic Tourism in India” (Sharma, 2017) tried to study the level of domestic tourism in rural and urban India and reasons for tourism trip by domestic households. It was found out that domestic households migrated due to health and medical related trips and for recreation.
A study entitled “Development of Tribal Areas in India: scope of tourism and corporate social responsibility” was conducted by Sarkar (2019). He found out that bringing in tourism with the help of corporate social responsibility to the village can bring the right push that the tribal need, and implementation of this would be highly difficult in the present socio-economic scenario of the ratio wherein we require the right marketing of tribal tourism and also protect the sentiments of tribal. There are certain structural and policy changes needed in this direction.
Based on the study conducted by Gokhale Kailash (2014) on the topic “Goa: Tourism and Socio-cultural Implications, A study of selected tourist destination of south Goa.” It was found that the respondents have shown higher ratings for adverse effects and economic development than cultural enhancement and threat to traditional culture. There is variation in perception with age, length of residence and education levels. There is no difference in gender perceptions.
A study was conducted on the topic “Sustainable Tourism in the Peruvian Tropical Rainforest” by Robin Newman in the year 2002. It was found out that the largest protected area in Peru is the Reservia Nacional Tambopata-Candama and a lot of tourists visit this area. A large variety of recreational activities take place in this area example hiking, piranha fishing etc. The Peruvian economy benefits from the extra revenue from tourism. Like others the Peruvian rainforest is also under threat. There is deforestation done on a large scale. Logging companies are felling trees and selling the timber to overseas markets. The rainforest is a valuable resource that provides income for Peru, but if the logging continues this resource will be depleted. But the Peruvian government has taken initiatives to protect the rainforest by developing national parks, reserves etc.
In the year 2010 Abhijit Banerjee studied about “Tourism in Protected Areas: Worsening Prospects for Tigers?” Protected Areas in India are managed by the Indian Forest Services. There are over 500 protected areas in India, the most popular one’s are the Tiger reserves which face heavy visitor numbers during the tourist season. Most visitors are pleasure-seekers and they do not care about conservation. The Indian Forest Service Administration are not formally trained and they do not pay attention to sustainable design, visitor education etc.
The ministry of tourism is only concerned about revenue through tourism. There are tourist lodges inside or at the periphery of protected areas. There are also lodges, hotels and eateries outside the protected areas, boundaries where the forest department control ends, leading to unchecked pollution, noise, waste etc. Which can harm the endangered species. When there is tiger sighting, tigers are chased and surrounded by jeeps and elephants for photo-ops, with significant impacton wildlife behaviour and habitat.
Based on the study entitled “Tourism: An Alternative to Development? Reconsidering Farming, Tourism and Conservation Incentives in Northwest Yunnan” (2009), It was found out that there was a rapid increase in tourism in community of Yunnan and most of the farmers income came from selling goods and services to tourists. As a result, tourism helped to increase cultivation and hire more labour to increase or rise productivity. This study tried to focus on how local farmers adopted tourism and to what extent did tourism help in development of agriculture in three main mountain communities in the Northwest Yunnan.
A study was conducted by Shaikh Yasmin (2018) on “Safety Issues in Tourism in Goa-A Tourist Perspective.” In research, proved that the tourism industry has a right to defend itself as well as to have a legitimate expectation that the state will do all it can to ensure safety and security. The incidents involving crimes against tourism in Goa and travel advisories issued by multiple countries against India has constituted strict measures to safeguard tourist safety, especially women travellers. Different groups with stakes in Goa’s tourism should come together and act against the people responsible for the crimes.
Based on the study entitled “Analysing the Economic Impact of Tourism in Kashmir” (Gulzar 2019) there has been rapid decline of tourists in the Kashmir division while the reverse is that of Jammu and Kashmir. The reasons for this decrease are state policies, local and cross border military, simmering conflict with Pakistan on the line of control and negative publicity. These factors have also led to decline in local tourism