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Medicare: the Ethical Issues on Abortion

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Abortion is defined as ”removing the embryo from the uterus, mostly performed in the first 28 weeks of pregnancy”. It can be induced on purpose or it can happen spontaneously, and this is known as miscarriages. There are two induction methods involved in terminating pregnancy. These are: medical abortion, which is used within 7 weeks of the last menstrual cycle, and surgical procedure, which is the use of suction aspiration within six weeks after fertilization. Today, the practice of abortion leads to a great controversy. Both from religious views and legal standpoints; ultimately, the benefits of abortion outweigh its negative outcomes. In this paper, I will argue against abortion based on Islamic perceptions and bioethics. God’s greatest creatures are human beings, owing to the fact that fetus has the rights to be protected. Next, regarding the view in contrast, the law presents the arguments supporting abortion right movements. Therefore, the thesis of this paper is, that the ethical dilemma concerning abortion lies between protecting the potential human life (site) and abortion rights movements.

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In terms of theories and ethics principles, deontology and utilitarianism should be taken into consideration when speaking about abortion, in general. Deontology means one should act based on duty and the action should be based on right intention. Our duty is justified by MAXIMS universal law to be applied throughout the world, which refers to fidelity. In this case, nurses are required to take care of the patient and not neglect the patient based on their values or personal beliefs. Since abortion is legal in Canada, nurses are required to follow the law. The principle of ethics in this case, encompasses autonomy. This means that the client has freedom of choice to make decisions. The CNO ethical values requires us to follow the nursing standards, which states to respect all. CNO states that human beings should be respectful regarding the technology that allows life to be preserved. If the nurse’s personal values conflict with the client’s wishes, the nurse should withdraw and make alternative arrangements with other caregivers. If no other caregiver is available, provide immediate care, and find another venue to express the nurse’s values. Moreover, utilitarianism, is when the action maximizes the greater good, the best interest of a client, which a healthcare provider should always have in mind. This refers to promoting happiness and well-being. The ethical principle that can be applied here is non-maleficence. This means to prevent harm, and to not condone wrong-doings, if abortion can cause harm while resolving the problem. After abortion, physical and psychological post-trauma could affect many females. Feeling guilty of what has been done are one of the consequences of abortion post-trauma. Since this procedure is legalised in Canada, as nurses, we cannot prevent harm but can minimize harm and refer women with post trauma to the right health care provider. As members of CNO, nurses are required to be truthful without interfering with the client’s decision. This means providing enough information to the patient about before and after effects of the procedure. Therefore, the patient can be fully informed. In this case, nurses could help the patient become aware of abortion trauma and the reasons that they want to proceed with the procedure.

Prior to 1969, abortion was illegal. However, in that year, abortion was legalized, but with limits. Abortion was to be used only if the pregnancy could be a threat to the mother’s life. In 1982, Canada passed a bill by the Charter of Rights and Freedom. This bill stated that if any of the laws that were passed by the CRF were violated, it would be removed from the legal system automatically. In 1988, the Supreme Court of Canada found that the bill that was passed, violated Section 7 of the Charter of Right and Freedom because it was against women rights to privacy of her body. Moreover, Canada became one of the first countries that permitted abortion without any restrictions. In 1989, the Supreme court ruled that a father has no say over a female’s decagon to get an abortion. In 1990, the Conservative party introduced Bill c43 to chastise doctors that perform abortion procedures without evaluating the risks and threats to the mother’s healt. However, ultimately; the Bill was not passed through because there was a tie in the votes with the Senate. In 1995, some provinces were forced to allow private abortion clinical hospitals. Some provinces decided to cover the cost under certain insurance plans, while some refused to cover the cost of abortion. In 2007-2015, there were continued attempts to pass the legislation. They tried to prevent abortion because the Bill included unborn victims’ crimes which ended late. In 2016-2018, Justin Trudeau, the Canadian Prime Minister, announced that he is pro-choice and that he supports women’s rights to have access to abortion. Furthermore, abortion was established as a medical procedure.

Firstly, any ethical issues on abortion, are guided by Islamic principles of bioethics. These consist of principles, responsibilities, and fundamental rights that are derived from the Qu’ran and the “Sunnah” – the words and actions of the prophet Mohamed. Islamic ethics act to guide the perspectives from four sources: the Quran, the Sunnah, the Fatwah, and the opinion of a scholar. “…abortion was not mentioned in the Quran, yet this act is against killing. All Islamic schools’ laws prohibit abortion except if there are other circumstances. In Islam, aborting a fetus that has passed 40 days or 120 days, is rendered an act of killing. The fetus is an innocent form of life, that deserves to be treated and protected as a child. The act of killing an innocent person is believed to be murder. In Islam, abortion interferes with god’s role as the creator of life and death. God is the one who created mankind and created the fetus inside a woman’s womb. For these reasons, women do not have the right to abort pregnancy for their selfish motives (). Whether it is the fear of loss of privacy, having too many kids, not being ready or equipped financially and/or emotionally to bear and raise a child, or using abortion as birth control. This does not mean that abortion is completely forbidden in Islam. It is only permissible if the pregnancy is going to put the mother’s life in danger. In this case, saving the mother’s life is the first priority. Next, respect for life is required. Of all the creations that God made, human begins are the greatest of all beings. It is mentioned in the Quran, “…its development, step by step is such that “surely we have created humans of the best stature as the perfect pattern of creations”. Clearly, killing an innocent life does not show any respect or appreciation for life. We must aim to protect, preserve, and sustain the potential life of a fetus inside the woman’s womb. Muslims believe that “everything happens to them for a reason,” was written long before they were born. That is why the potential life of a fetus is considered a predestination of God. Aborting a child is, is as if you aborted the will of God or taken a gift given by God. Islam teaches us how to appreciate and value the life of God’s creations.

Moreover, in today’s society, abortion rights movements also known as pro-choice movements, advocate the right to terminate pregnancy. Pro-choice says that females have the right to have control over their reproductive systems. Thus, abortion must be supported in this case. One may argue that if a female knows that she won’t be able to provide for the child financially, abortion may be the right choice for her. Most abortion instances take place because the woman no longer wants the pregnancy. Regarding pro-choice, the belief is that adoption is not an alternative way for abortion, since most females have a hard time giving their children up for adoption, post-birth.     

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