Globalisation has become a phenomenon that is inevitable – encouraging, free trade, new investments, ideas and additional pathways to connect the world as one. In spite of the world growing smaller, there have been growing debates about migration. Many developed countries agree that migration brings more harm to their economies. Politicians of developed countries do not want more immigrants. A familiar example would be the condition in the U.S where President Trump believes that the immigrants would ‘infest the country’ (Sampathkumar, 2018). However, such claims does not mean that migration is harmful, in fact, it is evident that migration causes more good than bad.
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In the earlier years, migration seems to be viewed in a more negative light. Although, not everyone still believes migration is beneficial, a wider audience has accepted the movement. A country benefits from migration in both ways. By gaining immigrants or through emigration. Migration has ties to population. One of the reasons that migration is beneficial is that it helps to sustain the population of a country. Population can be further distributed evenly with the help of migration. This helps to develop underdeveloped areas and relieve some areas from dense population which often saves them from pollution. Moreover, some countries have an ageing population. A country maybe lacking workers as they have a higher rate of mortality with low birth rates. This could be because the local population lacks a younger generation or they may have developed attitudes towards not getting married earlier, slowing down birth rates. Migration saves such countries from decreasing in population.
Globalisation has increased the mobility of labour across the globe. According to the International Labour Organization (ILO) the major reason why people migrate are in search of job offers and opportunities (ILO, 2015). This procures a pool of skilled workers for the hosting country strengthening their labour force. It makes the labour force of a country stronger leading to increased economic progress. Moreover, even if the immigrants are unskilled countries that are heavily industrialised would want to hire these migrantes as they would help these industries in lowering their costs therefore, increasing the production of the country as well. Such job opportunities are likely to help unskilled workers develop more skills as they take on more complex jobs – circling back to increasing a flow of skills (DEEWR, 2011). Skilled migrant workers further help develop skills within the country. For example – skilled migrants provides firms access to brand new markets, and coordinate complex business activities. Individualist Entrepreneurs help diffuse the differences among different groups of people – most likely ethnically and contributes knowledge generation to one another. Similarly, production complementarities between skilled migrant workers and native workers could lead to a raise in the return on capital, and through the process, generate higher savings and FDI inflows (Chiswick 2005; Peri and Sparber 2011). All of these mediums will contribute to productivity and/or competitiveness, in the sense of increased market share for firms in the host country (Hanson 2012). Therefore, concluding that migration benefits a country by facilitating and creating a more diverse and skilled labour force.
Migration involves movement from one place to another whether it is a mass movement or an individual movement. This movement creates a strong mixing effect as different migrants are often of different ethnicities, cultures, religions and backgrounds. In the current day to day life, often issues involving cultural differences are posted across the globe all over social media and news channels. Discrimination among different cultural groups and individuals have become the main issues lawmakers are flooded to tackle with. Thus, the importance of developing a society where people have mutual understanding and respect are greatly in need of today. Migration can said to be one of the intermediaries that can help slow down this burning fire. Due to colonization in the past, a pattern of the colonized countries migrating to the colonizer countries have been noted in studies (Gheasi and Nijkamp, 2017) Canada can be a prime example of a country with a diverse immigrant population. According to their census Canada has reported 200 places of births from immigrants (Statcan, 2016) proving its diversified population. Canadians believes that the forward thinking towards social policy is the main reason why they rank so highly among the social progress index (Ibbitson, 2016). This suggests that migration creates communities that are more immune to ethnic and cultural differences and therefore, strengthens understanding between one another.
As mentioned earlier, many governments and parties – especially those from developed countries are opinionated that migration brings in more harm than good. They are resistant on taking in immigrants and are focused on keeping the natives within a country. Many policymakers in these developed countries believe that immigration is an economic burden, because immigrants may create social tension and increase criminality (UNDP 2009). However, this argument can be rebutted as research shows that immigration does not have a correlation to increase in crimes. Moreover, large cities with substantial immigrant populations have lower crime rates, on average, than those with minimal immigrant populations (Kubrin, Ousey, Reid and Adelmen, 2017). Furthermore, if majority of immigrants are migrating over to a country for job purposes (ILO, 2015) to increase the standard of their lives it is illogical for them to commit crimes that may lead to them getting deported back to their country of origin. In addition to that point many countries today are the product of immigrants. For example, The United States of America – promoting itself as the land of opportunity. The U.S promotes itself by proudly stating that they are a great country due to being made up of immigrants. Therefore, migration cannot be directly linked to crime as migration does not solely cause crimes. Crimes depends on the social, economic, and political condition of a country. Therefore.migration does not bring harm to a country in terms of crimes.
Another common argument that is heard against migration, is that migration opens up a door that caters to the outflow of currency from a country. This statement is applicable only for those migrants that have their family in their home country. Migration patterns indicates that migration occasionally occurs where the movement of the whole family is involved (Gheasi and Nijkamp, 2017). If a member of a less developed country gets offered a job in a more developed country it is more likely that the whole family would decide to move to the developed country as chances for a better education are also higher. In addition to that it is more likely that the migrant would be spending more money within the country than the amount of money that they would be sending out (KNOMAD, 2016) . Furthermore, as remittances leave a country they would also be experiencing an inflow as well. According to statistics the inward flow of remittances in 2014 were 592.9 billion US dollars while the outflow of remittances were 427.8 billion US dollars (KNOMAD, 2016). This indicates that to most countries migration itself may not cause a great outflow of currency out of the country instead, help generate currency from one country to another. There are other factors that leads to the outflow of money from a country. Therefore we cannot jump to the conclusion that remittances cause harm to a country. While it may cause some effect to the host country it caters benefits to the receiving countries that receive an inflow of currency. In such a case it is more reasonable to say that remittances due to migration helps to develop developing countries by creating an inflow of cash to their economy that could help improve their current state.
Globalisation has had a significant impact on developed and developing countries through migration. Although, it is still a widely debated topic on the significant impacts that it leaves throughout the globe. While some policy makers and high authority figures strongly believe that it brings more harm than good, others believe that it brings more good than harm. These good outweighs the harm in different aspects. If migration was causing so much harm as these policy makers and high authority figures put out as, then why is it still increasing day by day and why are governments encouraging migration. It is most likely because, migration is helping to improve population patterns by providing a labour force to help develop different parts of a community. At the same time, migration helps to facilitate the flow of skilled workers that leans our world towards a more innovative future. Moreover, it can be proved that through remittances a country can improve its living standards. To sum up everything that has been stated, migration has proved to cause more good.
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