Theories of International Migration to America

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How did migrators arrive to what is now present day United States? One theory is that migrators had the ingenuity to create a flotation that resembles a boat to glide across the ocean to come to America. Another theory could be that most migrations arrived by using the Bering Land bridge. The Clovis culture had a well-known presence as there were findings of tools made from various natural resources. With that theory in mind it was assumed that the Paleo-Indians were the first to populate undiscovered land in America. As discoveries continue to unfold, findings conclude that there were various migration populations that had a presence prior to the Clovis era. Migrators wanted to find new natural resources and followed food sources like the Mastodons. Tools and weapons have been discovered along the route taken by migrators. Archeologists found remains that traced original location prior to migration along with identifying migrators sources of protein. Migrating populations primary came to the Americas using the Bering Land Bridge.

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To begin with, migrators came to America due to environmental and resource changes. Beringia was mainly composed of shrub tundra – as it is found in arctic Alaska today (Elias, 2014). Summer months were meant for hunting and gathering resources to prepare for winter or the journey across the bridge. When migrators did not to choose to journey due to harsh weather conditions they would adapt by creating small settlements and stay until summer months returned. Migrators had vast strategies and techniques to adapt to most climate changes. Most human migrators developed necessary survival items and followed wild game to their next destination.

To continue with, there has been multitude of locations that produced findings that support that there were populations existing before Clovis. The hunter-gatherers that were living at the Buttermilk Creek site and making projectile points, blades, choppers and other tools from local chert for a long time, possibly as early as 15,500 years ago (Wilford, 2018). Most findings were sharp like arrows that resembled a spear tip made from natural resources. On one end of a long stick, a spear tip was bind together with twine. This gave the migrators the ability to throw the spear with more force to strike the prey from a certain distance. As spears were primarily weapons, migrators were specifically hunting for big prey like the Mastodon. In Washington state, researchers found a rib from a Mastodon that had markings that later identified that it was a spear like weapon that had struck the animal.

Considering this, the migratory routes to the Americas, archeologists at University of Alaska have found a site in modern day central Alaska called Upward Sun River camp. At this campsite, there was well preserved infants that were discovered. DNA was extracted, and the origin of the infants came from East Asia approximately 35,000 years ago (Joyce, 2018). Another finding to aid that migrators used the Bering Land bridge to come to the Americas before Clovis was coprolites found in Paisley Caves, Oregon. With DNA extracted from the specimen, these findings were examined further to determine what kind of food resources was available to migrators during that time. Besides hunting for big prey like the Mastodon, there has been indication that migrators also hunted smaller prey. Canid DNA in the coprolites suggests early Americans may have eaten dogs, wolves or foxes; alternatively, such animals later came by and urinated on the dung (Wayman, 2011).

In conclusion, there are various theories on how migrators came to inhibit America prior to the Clovis era. Migrators wanted to satisfy their curiosity of adventures and exploration into the new world of unknown. Migrators only had a certain amount of resources in one location and over time needed to follow food sources to keep population growing. Along with migrating to various locations, there has been findings that resemble weapons such as spears that was used to hunt animals like the Mastodon. Lastly, recent findings in Alaska and Oregon provided clarity on origin before migrating to America and examining what protein sources were accessible. Migrating populations primary came to the Americas by using the Bering Land Bridge.

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