A multidisciplinary emphasizes as the primary unit of social analysis also refers to the interregional and transnational division of labor. Also divides world into core countries, semi- periphery countries and periphery countries, core countries focuses on higher skill, capital- intensive product and the rest of the world focuses on low skill labor-intensive product. World system analysis argues that capitalism as a historical system formed earlier and that countries do not develop in stages but the system does and different events with different meaning as a phase in the development of historical capitalism. Proponents of world system analysis see the world stratification system the same way Karl Marx viewed class. In addition to ownership, stressed occupational skill level in production process.The periphery nations own little of the world’s means of production even when located in periphery nations also it provides less skilled labor. Before the 16th century, Europe was dominated by feudal economies. Then it grew from mid 12 to 14th century but from 14th to mid-15 century, they suffered major crisis. Wallenstein explain crisis caused by:
Hence, due to failure of the feudal systems Europe embraced the capitalist system were motivated to develop technology to explore and trade around the world using superior military to take control of trade routes. According to Wallrstein unique qualities of the modern world system include its truly global nature and the fact that is a world economy that has not become politically into a world.
The extension of feminism into theoretical, fiction or philosophical discourse. It aims to understand the nature of gender inequality. It examines women’s and men’s social roles, experiences, interests, chores, and feminist politics in a variety of fields, such as anthropology and sociology, communication, media studies, psychoanalysis, home economics, literature, education, and philosophy. Feminist theory focuses on analyzing gender inequality. Themes explored in feminism include discrimination, objectification (especially sexual objectification), oppression, patriarchy, stereotyping, art history and contemporary art, and aesthetics. Feminist theories first emerged as early as 1794 in publications such as A Vindication of the Rights of Woman by Mary Wollstonecraft. Women’s issues such as their limited rights due to men’s flawed perception were addressed in publications. Another issue was that women would be punished under law but could not use the same law for their protection and many world constitutions were critiqued for their male gendered language.
A field of critical theory that emerged in the early 1990s out of the fields of queer studies and women’s studies. Heavily influenced by the work of Lauren Berlant, Leo Bersani, Judith Butler, Lee Edelman, Jack Halberstam, and Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick, queer theory builds both upon feminist challenges to the idea that gender is part of the essential self and upon gay or lesbian studies’ close examination of the socially constructed nature of sexual acts and identities. Whereas gay or lesbian studies focused its inquiries into natural and unnatural behavior with respect to homosexual behavior, queer theory expands its focus to encompass any kind of sexual activity or identity that falls into normative and deviant categories. Queer theory focuses on mismatches between sex, gender and desire.
Queerness has been associated most prominently with bisexual, lesbian and gay subjects, but its analytic framework also includes such topics as cross-dressing, intersex bodies and identities, gender ambiguity and gender-corrective surgery.
Race conflict approach
This approach focuses on inequality and conflict between people of different racial and ethnic categories. It looks at disparity of different racial and ethnic groups. The approach mainly focuses on how racial groups engage one another in a conflict. An example of a race conflict incident is the Ferguson demonstrations that were perceived to be due to inequalities and continuing conflict between black Americans and white Americans. W. E. B Du Bois theorized that race, class and nation might explain certain aspects of black political economy. Sociologist Patricia Hill Collins writes, “Du Bois saw race, class and nation not primarily as personal identity categories but as social hierarchies that shaped African American access to status, poverty and power. ”
This theory describes the postmodernist movement in set of cultural tendencies. It is an era that follows modernism. Modernism includes activities and creations of those who complied with the traditional forms of art, activities of daily life and faith were becoming ill fitted for their tasks and outdated in the changing economic, political and social environment of an emerging fully industrialized world. Postmodern theory arose in the 20th century as a critical response to assumptions allegedly present in the modernist theory regarding culture, identity,history or language that were developed during the 18th century. Postmodernist believe there are no objective moral values meaning there are no qualities, which are morally good independent of the belief of human beings. Therefore, this theory suggests equality for all things.
This theory based on colonialism and imperialism effects. Colonialism is the practice of acquiring full or partial political control over another country, occupying it with settlers and exploiting it. On the other hand imperialism is the policy of extending a country’s power and influence through use of military force or other means. Post-colonial theory explains the human consequences that from the control and exploitation of colonization. This theory examines the social and political power relationships that sustain colonization. Many cultural narratives surrounds colonizers and colonised people. Africa is one of the continents that was colonialized by Europeans. After world war all African nations fought hard the effects of colonilizatin to achieve independence. Colonialism resulted in many conflicts in Africa due to the injustices the Africana were facing. Colonization results in many tensions that cause conflict development. Colonizers ideologically justified racial and cultural superiority of western world over non westerners. The ideology of being superior over others resulted in many revolutions against the injustices. Many post colonialized people develop develop post-colonial identity.
In Africa the post-colonial era resulted in many conflicts that African nations had difficulty controlling them one of the conflict that resulted was tension caused by artificial boundaries established by European power that failed to reflect tribal and religious divisions resulting in wars and genocide. Due to imperialism African living standards was extremely low. Some European nations pretended to help the nations while they were taking the resources and helping themselves. Even after independence many African had to fight injustices and inequalities from their governments that assimilated colonialism.
This theory originates from school of thought that stresses the reflective assessment and critique of society and culture by applying knowledge from social science and humanities. Critical theory maintains that ideology is the principal obstacle to human liberations. Many scientists defined critical theory one of them was Max horkheimer who said that critical theory is oriented towards critiquing and changing society as a whole in contrast to traditional theory oriented only in understanding and explaining it. Critical theorists see society riddled with dissention, inequality and conflict. Basing on Marxism mainly views conflict to result from class struggle. During Marx time oppressors were wealth owners of the means of production while the oppressed were working class.
The ruling class always develops ideologies to justify and legitimize their exploitation. In that era Marx called workers acceptance of ideologies that counter their interest as being false consciousness. With time class-consciousness developed and the oppressed started fighting for their rights resulting in revolutions. Karl Marx explained that the route of crime was the product of unjust, alienating and demoralizing social conditions that denied productive labor to the masses unemployed. Still today the route of many conflicts in our society is the injustices. According to George vold conflict theory concentrates entirely on the clash of individuals loyally upholding their differing group interests.
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