Multiple Job Holding (MHJ) is a significant feature in Nigeria labour market, with at least one in ten people actively involved in the workforce holding more than one job at a time, which has been a major concern in recent times. MJH has been described by some scholars as the holding of more than one job (Eggleston and Bir, 2006; Gonzalez, 2004). Both male and female gender engaged in one or more jobs apart from their primary occupation. However, MJH can also be seen whereby health professionals engaging in both public and private health and non-health related works, this may include agriculture and other economic activities. In Nigeria, the issue of MJH is very prominent especially among women but most of these jobs are not recognized.
MJH is common to all fields of endeavours. For instance, Mcla1ren (2001) discovered that MJH is associated with the actualization of employment and more flexible work patterns in Western societies, a move from the so called ‘standard’ work. The apparent trend to non-standard employment is in effect a move away from ‘full time’ work over a basic week. According to him, the change is attributed to processes such as economic globalization and decentralized, non-unionized labour bargaining over work terms and conditions. MJH is an important form of a typical employment in most economies. New forms of work are driven by digitalization which may enable its future growth. However, many misconception exist, including the belief that multiple job holders are low skilled workers who engage in multiple jobs primarily for financial reasons, or also that the practice increase during economic downturn.
The reason for engaging in multiple jobs, according to Chapman (2000), varies among employers and workers. Employees are motivated primarily by the need to build a sufficient level of individual or household’s income. Low skill workers and households with low income hold multiple jobs to pay for necessities. High income professionals also engage in multiple jobs to build a higher income and are motivated by the personal and family benefits from flexible employment. One of the significant changes that affect farm households in developing countries is the significant increase in participation in off-farm employment among women farmers.
The issue of multiple job holding and their work performance among health workers in southwest Nigeria has been a burning one for some time, with little research conducted. In this era of economic dynamism, employees are far more concerned about how they will not only flourish professionally but also economically (Satarupa, 2012). Innovative techniques are developing day by day so as to give employees a suitable culture to work in a more motivated way due to the human resource management field which is developing very fast and leading human activity in realizing its importance in the smooth functioning of any organization. There is a tough competition all around the globe for the survival of the fittest and this has made a lot of people to have and innovate other means of survival which has led a lot of worker engage in more than one job to increase their level of livelihoods. This is because the management of people are also taking its shape and moulding into various dimensions and categories. This has given rise to the addition of extra work with extra pay with some other employer along with their primary job.
Multiple job holding is a chronic problem in Nigeria, one that has hurt the efficiency of public services (Ologunde et al 2013); Employees must spend extra time doing their extra jobs instead of completing their tasks, most employers would agree that working for other organizations or undertaking re-training during periods of annual leave, sick leave or maternity leave for example, is an unacceptable situation which could have a detrimental impact on businesses.
However, most research has been conducted among teachers and/or lecturers, farmers and other wage earners about their multiple job holding and their work performances in Nigeria. Little studies have been conducted on multiple job holding and work performances among health workers especially among nurses and laboratory scientist in southwest Nigeria. Therefore, it was against this backdrop that the study will examine multiple jobs holding practices and work performance among health workers’ in Southwest Nigeria.
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