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Nanotechnology: Application in Science and Technology

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“Research is an expression of faith in the possibility of progress. The drive that leads scholars to study a topic has to include the belief that new things can be discovered, that newer can be better, and that greater depth of understanding is achievable. Research especially academic research is a form of optimism about the human condition.” Henry Rosovsky.

The human races now belong to a world far from nature and live a techno-savvy lifestyle. We cannot escape from nature because we are all part of nature. We haven’t still explored the real treasures of nature. This fact can be a disturbing point with humans. People from far and wide come exploring the benefits of herbs, plant-based medicines and is practicing in their day to day life since centuries. A lot of research and studies have been done which eluded the common man’s reach and knowledge. With life on tech-route for every individual in the 21st century, human sufferings are coming out with different names. Plants have the answer to all these queries; the overall key is no side effects and effective remedies. The fact is that the use of herbal treatments is independent of any age groups. 

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The traditional medicinal practice prevalent in India since 2000 B.C. is Ayurveda. Ayurvedic treatment is mostly based on herbs or plants which have certain medicinal value or property. There is n number of plants that are studied every day and still research is going on. The Indian sages believed that Ayurveda is the one-stop solution to cure many health-related problems and diseases. Plants that have medicinal property provide rational means for the treatment of many internal diseases, which are otherwise considered incurable in other systems of medicine. Aside from having no side effects, alternative or herbal medicine is more affordable and can be found in the garden. 

Living in the Techno-savvy world is a curse and a boon. Where there are many after-effects of living an unhealthy lifestyle from food habits to the use of machines that give away a lot of radiation, there are also breathtaking breakthroughs in the world of science and technology that actually help mankind in different ways. Science and technology help each other advance in many different ways. Man is in constant search of answers to the questions that can help for the betterment of humans and society. One such breakthrough in the world of science is the use of nanotechnology.

Nanotechnology

In 1970‟s Norio Taniguchi initial outlined the term applied science. Nanotechnology is rising as a quickly growing field with its application in science and technology for the aim of producing new materials at the nanoscale level. Nanotechnology is a field of science which deals with production, manipulation, and use of materials ranging in nanometers.

Additional generalized description of engineering science was later on established by the National engineering science Initiative, that defines engineering science as the manipulation of matter with a minimum of one dimension sized from 1 to 100 nanometers. This definition reflects the actual fact that quantum mechanical effects require a square measure at this quantum-realm scale, so the definition shifted from a specific technological goal to a groundwork class including all kinds of analysis and technologies that influence the special properties of matter that occur below the given size threshold. It is that therefore common to examine the descriptor ‘nanotechnologies’ yet as ‘nanoscale technologies’ to ask the broad vary of analysis and applications whose common attribute is the size. Nanoparticles are known to exist in diverse shapes such as spherical, triangular, cubical, pentagonal, rod-shaped, shells, ellipsoidal and so forth.

Nanotechnology is a broad branch of science, defined by size, including diverse fields such as surface science, organic chemistry, molecular biology, semiconductor physics, microfabrication, etc. The analysis and application within the field of nanotechnology additionally vary extensions of standard device physics to utterly new approaches supporting molecular self-assembly, developing new materials with dimensions on the nanoscale to direct management of matter on the atomic scale.

Nanobiotechnology in the field of science that combines biological principles with physical and chemical procedures to create a particle with specific functions. The field applies certain nanoscale principles and techniques to transform biosystem (living or nonliving) and uses biological principles and materials to create something new at the nanoscale. The integration of nanotechnology with biotechnology, as well as with info technology and cognitive science, is expected to accelerate in the next decade (Roco and Bainbridge, 2002). [8] Biotechnology and nanobiotechnology are two terms that are often used interchangeably in studying to attain the goals of Nanotechnology and also used for studying how biological machines work and how they can be adapted in improving existing Nano Technologies for creating new one ones. (Nolting, 2005). The advances made in the field of nanobiotechnology to harness the benefit of life sciences, health care, and industrial biotechnology are remarkable. Based on these aspects metal nanoparticles have received considerable attention in recent years because of their potential applications in biological tagging and pharmaceutical applications, which have a high specific surface area and fraction of surface atoms, though the nanoparticles like copper, zinc oxide, gold, alginate, and silver have proved to be most effective antimicrobial activity against numerous bacteria and viruses. (Kumaravel Palani Samy et al., (2014).

Synthesis of nanoparticles is done using various methods like physical, chemical and biological techniques. The two strategies are: top-down and bottom-up (Fendler, 1998). Nanoparticles have massive surface to volume magnitude relation, therefore surface connected phenomena/properties square measure drastically affected with slight modification of size, form and encompassing media of nanoparticles . This unique size of nanoparticles facilitates development of nanodevices/nanosensors that can travel into cells to probe proteins (enzymes and receptors) or the DNA inside the cell or outside the cell. The high chemical stability and photostability of AuNP and AgNP makes it nontoxic for living organisms. Au and Ag are known for being generally inert and, especially gold, for not being attacked by O2 to a significant extent. This makes Gold and Silver nanoparticles stable in ordinary conditions. Solutions of AgNP have applications as bactericidal agents because the Ag+ ions interfere with bacteria metabolism. AuNP and AgNP exhibit strong absorption of electromagnetic waves in the visible range due to Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR). 

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