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Nanotechnology in Nowadays Science

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Now a day’s Nanotechnology may be a blazing source for the investigators due to reduced energy use, and better medical treatment. Nanoparticles are very tiny particles of material. Their size is measured in nanometer. Nanoparticles are solid colloidal particles ranging from 1nm to 100 nm in size. Nanoparticles have many advantages in nanotechnology because of little size, large surface area. These particles are prepared easily through the different chemical, physical, and biological method. But biological method is most important for the preparation of nanoparticles as compared to other methods because, it is an easy, fast, and straightforward method. During this method nanoparticles are prepared in short duration of time. This method does not have multi-step chemical synthetic procedure. During this method toxic materials are not produced. This method is environmentally friendly. The ZnO nanoparticles are mostly studied and zinc oxide nanoparticles have many application such as bacteriacide, antifungal, injury curing and optical properties due to its. The Green synthesis occurs when we use the aqueous solution of Ocimum Tenuiflorum leaf extract and zinc nitrate. When we used fixed quantity of leaves extract to metal particle then color change occur which indicates the formation of nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis Spectrophotometer, FTIR and SEM. The particle prepared was of the dimension starting from 90-500 nm.

Nanotechnology is hybrid science combing chemistry and engineering. Nanotechnology is highly interdisciplinary field such as physics, biology, computer science, engineering and more nanoscience is rapidly expanding. Nanotechnology is all about building things atoms by atom and molecules by molecules .Goal of this nanotechnology is used to make tiny particles called nanoparticles. Nanoparticles are very tiny particles of material. Their size are measured in nanometer. Nanoparticles are between 1nm and 100nm in diameter and contain few hundred atoms By comparison, the diameter of an atom is around 0.1nm and small molecules have diameter of less than 1nm.Small nanoparticles have diameter of 1nm.

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Nanoparticles are dispersed molecules Nanoparticles have size like that of many viruses[1]. In the modern times, investigators prepared nanoparticles as a result of progress in science and technology. These nanoparticles having diameter of hundred nanometer. Due to this investigation, nanoparticles have many uses in different fields of science and technology. Nanoparticles has marvelous application and are utilized more than you might think in consumer product. Zinc oxide nanoparticles are metal oxide nano material. Their characterization is done through the photolysis and photo oxidation process opposing the chemical as well as botanical, zoological category [2].

Self organization is the spontaneous organization of molecules or object into well defined aggregates via non covalent interaction. Here building block is molecules or object with coded information for self assembly here process is mix, shake, and form products. So one of most important type of self assembly is molecular self assembly in nanoscience. Here group of molecules spontaneously rearrange their position in order to form most stable structure. Self assembly is one of few practical strategies for making ensembles of nanostructure. Now a day the preparation of diverse nanoparticle is well developed. However, the most important and challenging task is their organization at nanoscale .For multidimensional assembly of nanoparticles with controlled morphology is important for realizing their novel application. Organized or self –assembled nanostructure show remarkable collecting properties which is useful for engineering nanoarchitectures. It is key to successful application of nanoparticles –based devices .In the self assembly we get defect free ordered nanostructure. We can create periodic assembled nanostructure by different novel and innovative procedure. By using self assembly we make various nanostructures which have various applications. We can do nano-organization using “top down” approach. Self assembly may be static and dynamic. Once static assembly formed it is stable but dynamic assembly is not stable. There are different types of forces which drive the self assembly like non covalent, ionic, vander waals, hydrogen bonding. Weak interaction play important role in self assembly like hydrogen bonding, electrostatic attraction, metal ligand attraction Vander waals interaction, hydrophilic interaction and hydrophobic interaction.

Alternative artificial method for nanoparticles synthesis is nucleation and growth .This method is precipitation method. During this process we mix the reactant vigorously so that small size nanoparticles are produced .Because small sized nanoparticles have many advantage as compared to large sized nanoparticles in nanotechnology. There are different parameters which affect the particle growth such as capping agent, reducing agent, concentration of reactant, pH value of the solution, duration of heat treatment. When we used high amount of nuclei then small sized nanoparticles are formed. There are two factors which control the stability of nanoparticles such as electrostatic stabilization and steric hindrance. In electrostatic stabilization adsorption of ions to the surface creates an electrical double layer which results in a columbic repulsion force between individual particles.

Now a day nanoparticles are prepared by the green chemistry because green chemistry is environmentally safe chemistry. Green chemistry to me means designing the material in the chemical that will use in future that are better for human health and that are also better for environment as a whole and that will help us to design an efficient planet where we utilize everything in sort of circular way so that everyone life will be better. Inshort term we can say that green chemistry is fundamental approach to developing chemical products in a very safe environmentally friendly way.

There are different method for the preparation of nanoparticles such as physical, chemical, biological and hybrid method. But the biological method is main route for nanoparticles synthesis because it does not involve any harmful or toxic chemical as well as it is ecofriendly, economic, and reaction takes place at room temperature. In biological method we use plant extract that reduces the hazardous material such as milky latex of calotropis procera. It was used first time in biological process because it acts as catalyst and reduce the metal oxide. For biological process we would like to synthesis zinc oxide nanoparticle from Aloe Vera leaf extract also and we want to know whether Aloe Vera leaf extract gives better zinc oxide nanoparticles .Through the Aloe Vera leaf extract stable zinc oxide nanoparticles are synthesized. Aloe Vera leaf extract belong to family Liliaceae Synthesized Zinc oxide nanoparticles are inorganic compound having chemical formula ZnO. Zno is nearly insoluble in water, but it will dissolve in most acids such as hydrochloric acid. Solid zinc oxide will also dissolve in alkalies to give soluble zincates. Zinc oxide nano powders are available as powders and dispersions but in nature it occur as rare mineral zincite, which usually contain manganese and other impurities that confer a yellow to red colour. In bulk form zinc is white and opaque, but in nano form it is transparent, it means that properties of matter change at the nanoscale.

Zincoxide is an amphoteric oxide Zinc oxide nanoparticles show antibacterial, anticorrosive, antifungal, and UV filtering properties. It is used in the manufacturing of ceramics, glass, concrete, rubber (e.g. car tyres), lubricants, paints., Zinc is a block D, period 4 element, while oxygen is a block Period 2 element. And thus in materials science, ZnO is usually known as II-VI semiconductor. This zinc oxide nanoparticles shows many properties such as high electron mobility ,environmental stability, and optical transmittance in the visible range and its wide and direct band gap and its large exciton binding energy in solar cells, and electronic applications of ZnO as thin-film semiconductors devices and diode are forthcoming as of 2009 [3].

Nanotechnology is coined by Norio Taniguchi in 1974. Nanotechnology is the application of nanoscience to produce devices and products. Nanotechnology is strong primary device as well as engineering science device. Nanobiology use the nanomaterial for biological application and integration of nanomaterial with biology has led to the development of various devices such as diagnostic devices [4]. Because of small sized nanoparticles, nanoscale devices can readily interact with bimolecules on both the surface of cells and inside of cells. The application of nanomaterial is necessary to both better biomimic cellular system and construct more efficient system than nature itself [5] and [6] According to Smalley there are two types of nanotechnologies such as wet and dry nanotechnology. The first study the naturally occurring nanoparticles such as forest fires, sea spray, mineral composites, volcanic ash, and viruses. The second study the man-made nanoparticles such as cooking smoke, diesel exhaust, welding fumes, industrial effluents [7].

Inpointof view of ASTM standard definition nanoparticles is any material having at least two or three dimension in the range of 1 to 100nm [8].Two dimension mean nanoparticles having length and breadth such as nanowires and nanotubes. Three dimension mean it have all the parameter of length, breadth, and height such as nanoshell, nanorings. These nanoparticles having many potential bioapplication such as contrast agents for cell imaging and therapeutics for treating cancer, analytical tool and drug delivery vehicles.

Nanoparticles are faster, lighter, can get into small spaces, cheaper, more energy efficient than bulk material. When surface to volume ratio increased then greater amount of substance comes in contact with surrounding material. This results in better catalyst, since a greater proportion of material is exposed for potential reaction. Nanoparticles can make material more chemically reactive and affect their strength or electrical properties .That is why nonomaterial show different properties. But bulk material should have constant properties regardless of its size but at nanoscale this is often not the case. In bulk metal conduction band and valance band lies close .So unbound electron have motion that is not confined. But in nanometal separation occur between conduction band and valance band, electron motion becomes confined and quantization sets in.

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