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Nationalism And Two Nation Theory

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The term nationalism is used to describe two phenomena:

  1. The thoughts that the members of a nation have when they care about their national identity,
  2. The actions that the members of a nation have take when seeking to achieve (or sustain) self determination.

Nationalism on the Three Time Levels (Past, Present and Future) Since nationalism itself is an sentiment or a combination of different emotions, therefore, feelings of common pride in national achievements and common grief in national tragedies. Simple devotion to the nation such as “My country, right or wrong”. Future level for nationalism is like hoping that the nation will one day become a great nation. And if it is already a great nation then hope for it to be the greatest in the world are quite helpful for the furtherance. Nationalism is always drawn from ideology. Nationalism is made up of thirteen conditions or beliefs; following are its subgroups. Emotional Basis • Common group feelings

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  • Love for the fellow nationals
  • Common hostility to other similar groups Political and Social Apparatus
  • Common territory possessed
  • The existence of common sovereign government or the desire for it
  • The existence of common moral, social or economic institutions or ideas Spiritual Equipment
  • Possession of some common cultural characteristics i. e. , language, customs, manners, literature, art, music and folk-lore
  • Common religion
  • Common history or common origin
  • Common character shared by the national group

Two Nation theory Evolution of the Concept

During the struggle for political independence in India, the Two-Nation Theory emerged, which meant that two nations – Hindus and Muslims – inhabited the subcontinent. It further emphasized that there were sharp discrepancies in culture, language, religious practices of both communities. Muhammad Ali Jinnah was not the first to call the Muslims of India a nation divergent from the Hindus, previously, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, had also addressed them as ‘QAUM’. Moreover, the Agha Khan, Amir Ali and others referred to their community as a ‘nation’.

Later on, Allama Iqbal provided the philosophical explanation for the uniqueness of the Indian Muslims. However, Jinnah was the first to conclude that Hindus and Muslims are two distinct nations, which could not live together. Constituent Assembly of Pakistan gave it a legal sanction by passing objectives Resolution in March 1949.

Iqbal was a great poet, philosopher and politician in British India. He born on 9 November 1877 in Sialkot and died on 21th April 1938. He is consider one of the most important figures in Urdu literature, with literary work in both Urdu and Persian languages. iqbal was also called as Muslim philosophical thinker of modern times. Iqbal is understood as Shair-e-Mushriq means author of the East he’s conjointly known as Muffakir-e-Pakistan (The Inceptor of Pakistan) and Hakeem-ul-Ummat (The Sage of the Ummah). Iqbal had a great role in Muslim political movement. Iqbal had remained active in the Muslim League. He did not support Indian involvement in World War Iand as well as the Khilafat movement and remained in close up with Muslim political leaders such as Maulana Mohammad Ali and Muhammad Ali Jinnah. He was a opponent of the typical Indian National Congress, which he regarded as dominated by Hindus and was disappointed with the League when during the 1920s, it was absorbed in factional divides between the pro-British group led by Sir Muhammad Shafi and the centrist group led by Jinnah.

Iqbal And The Islamic State:

Iqbal reflects each Western and monotheism influences in his education and experiences. Iqbal’s writing, spurred by his deep concern for the crises of Islam in modern society. For Muslims, Islam is his community, his nation within which he can attain his true individuality. The monotheism society relies upon common belief. Iqbal stressed that so as to follow economic and system of Islam, you wish to possess a state. He provided the theoretical framework. Iqbal in his letter to M. Ali Jinnah, He stressed upon the monotheism laws as basic to the survival of Islam. Iqbal says in his letter of twentieth Gregorian calendar month, 1933. “You might rest assured that I’m not fascinated by politics per se. it had been my interest in Islam as an ethical polity that drove Maine to politics……” He additional aforementioned within the same letter that: “It was my duty to success and to position before the younger generation the important which means of our ideals……”

During 1905 to 1908 Iqbal was started talking regarding ‘Tauheed’ that if you wish the binding force you’ve got to follow the conception of ‘Tauheed’. If deen is lost each factor is lost. We should always break the conception of color, cast, creed and different things. For exciting a movement amongst the Muslim students Iqbal recommended four basic approaches: religious writing, Hadith, Ijma and Qiyas. Iqbal conjointly determined that “It is Islam that has return to rescue the Muslims and not the other way around. ”

Allahabad Session:

IN 1928 M. Iqbal was elective secretary of the Shafi branch of the Muslim league. In the same year he was appeared before the Simon Commission as a witness. In 1929 he attended the Muslim Conference command in metropolis. He was elective because the president of All Republic of India Muslim League in 1930. In the same year he presided the annual session of the All Asian nation Muslim League control at Allahabad. He delivered a presidential speech that was referred to as Allahabad address. During this speech he aforesaid that:“Do not assume that the matter i’m indicating could be a strictly theoretical one. it’s terribly living and sensible downsidecalculated to have an effect on the terribly cloth of Islam as a system of life and conduct…. . ”He conjointly same,“Redistribution of British Asian nation calculated to secure a permanent answer of the communal downside is unnoticed, then I support as definitely as potential, the Muslim demands repeatedly urged by the All India Republic of Asian nation Muslim League and every one India Muslim Conference.

The Muslims of Asian nation can’t conform to any constitutional changes that have an effect on their majority rights. In this speech Iqbal was the primary to recommend a separate country of origin for the Muslims on the platform of Muslim League. The theme prompt by others had not attracted any attention the least bit, however the one proposes by Iqbal attracted worldwide attention for the primary time. The words of Iqbal that took abundant attention during this speech was that:I would prefer to see the geographical area, North-West Frontier Province, Sind and Baluchistan amalgamated into one State. liberty at intervals within the British Empire, or while not the British Empire, the formation of consolidated North-West Indian Muslim State seems to Maine to be the ultimate destiny of the Muslims, a minimum of North-West Asian nation. ”The whole address was thought imitative and it referred to as the Muslims to induce united and prepare themselves for the struggle to realize freedom. On this occasion he was convinced that the sole resolution for the Muslims to survive in India was to own a country of origin.

Iqbal, The Visionary, Jinnah, The Technician And Pakistan The Reality:

Iqbal unreal of Muslim autonomy to be distributed within the Muslim majority areas of the Indian sub-continent. During a meeting with national leader, he failed to use the term ‘two nation’ however ‘nation’. Iqbal selected national leader to guide the Muslims. During a letter to national leader he wrote that:“You area unit the sole Muslim in Asian nation, Bharat, Asian country and Asian nation. These days to whom the community incorporates a right to appear up for safe steerage through the storm that is coming back to North-West India, and maybe to the entire of Asian country. ” In his historical Allahabad Address, Iqbal unreal associate degree freelance sovereign state for the Muslims of North-West Asian country. As Iqbal hand-picked Jinnah, statesman, solon, national leader to steer the Muslims and Jinnah articulated the case of separate motherland for Asian country, |West Pakistan, Asian country, and Asian nation.

Therefore brightly that even the Hindus and British couldn’t sub his means and gave means for the creation of Pakistan. Solon as a superb professional person and politician, his sense of sensible and possible set him quite excluding the visionary Iqbal. Therefore West Pakistan became as a reality as a result of their endeavors. An author has remarked that“But within the interior of all darkness there shone a unsteady lightweight in urban center. And this was Iqbal WHO stood steadfast by statesman in those making an attempt days and helped him to charter the course of Indo-Muslim politics.”

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