Natural disasters are eminent facts of life. Humans often have little control over whether they occur or not. However, they can be prepared to face those natural disasters and minimise their risks. Today I will discuss three natural disasters and possible solutions.
The first natural disaster phenomena I am going to discuss are earthquakes. Earthquakes are caused when tectonic plates in the Earth’s crust collide. This, in turn, results in sudden shakes and tremors that disrupts the Earth’s surface. If the collision occurs under seabeds it results in tsunamis which cause massive sea waves and flooding. Earthquakes are measured on a Richter magnitude scale that ranges from 1 being barely felt to 9 and greater resulting in total destruction.
One of the most important solutions to this issue is building strong foundation bases for buildings. Japan, which lies on the earthquake belt, has started to employ building codes that specify building foundation structures that can withstand the quakes. Furthermore, individuals should be trained on how to behave and act during an earthquake. One of the most important tactics is it to be under a sturdy solid structure such as a table, or to just stay in your car.
The second natural disasters I am going to discuss are landslides. A landslide is the collapse of a mass of earth or rock. It is described as a downward and outward slope. They are a type of mass wasting and are caused by multiple causes. Natural causes of landslides include earthquakes and heavy rainfall. Earthquakes trigger landslides when the collision of the earth plates result in mass movement of soil. Heavy rainfall, on the other hand, saturates sloped areas and weakens the aid of roots and result in mudslides. There are multiple solutions to landslides but they are mostly preventive. To begin with, landowners should be made aware of the risks of their lands and land grounds should be assessed before the building process begins. Governments should inform people about high-risk areas and should enforce preventive measures.
Some of these measures include avoiding deforestation in those areas and some cases implementing mechanic rock application and retaining walls and wire meshing.
The third natural disaster is volcanic eruptions. A volcano is a mountain that opens downward to molten below the surface of the earth. There have been 600 volcanos that have been known to erupt in history. One of them is the Vesuvius volcano in the city of Pompeii, Italy, which left many of the residents in fossil formations. The most recent volcano eruption was that of the Volcán de Fuego in Guatemala in 2018 which resulted in the death of 190 people.
Volcano eruptions are dangerous for three main reasons. First, the eruption causes explosions of falling rocks that affect the surrounding areas. Second, it also produces lava which can be fatal to live organisms and structures. Third, eruptions cause ash which causes air pollution and make vision difficult and can result in respiratory problems. Hence, individuals who live in an area near an active volcano should be informed about the status of the volcano. Thanks to technology scientists are now able to predict when a volcano might erupt. Those residents should always have an emergency evacuation plan in addition to emergency kits that contain goggles, masks and flashlights. Moreover, local authorities should keep close track on active volcanos and have evacuation plans ready. Furthermore, they have the responsibility of informing and educating their residents on how to behave during an eruption.
In conclusion, humans have different control levels on natural disasters. Disasters such as earthquakes and volcano eruptions cannot be stopped, however, can be dealt with in ways which minimise risk. Disasters such as landslides, on the other hand, can be avoided by assessing land and implementing safety measures.