Please note! This essay has been submitted by a student.
Optimization of municipal solid waste collection and transportation through source separation becomes one of the major concerns in the MSW management system design, due to the fact that the existing MSW management system suffer by the high collection and transportation cost. Generally, in a city different waste sources scatter throughout the city in heterogeneous (Heterogeneous refers to a structure with dissimilar components or elements.) way that increases waste collection time and transportation cost in the waste management system. Transportation cost is high due to improper route management which results in more fuel and time consumption which are the major problem for MSW management. Therefor a shortest waste collection and transportation strategy can effectively reduce waste collection and transportation cost. This study aims at providing an overview of the existing solid waste management practices in Surat and suggest solutions to some major problems being faced by the existing system. This includes lack of suitable trained manpower, inappropriate collection routes and often unavailability of collection vehicles. Further, insufficient number of bins & bin capacity at different locations often leads to overflow of waste. If we apply our route the MSW management system will be in proper route with optimum utilization of all resources which are further mention.
Waste management has become a major concern of our times. Surat City enormous amounts of residues are being produced, which need to be managed in an economical way, while not compromising the environment and public health, intensive work is being done in searching for means to reduce the growing amount of waste generated and technologies to discard and dispose of it safely and economically. Solid waste management involves activities associated with generation storage, collection, transfer and transport, processing and disposal of solid waste which are environmentally compatible, adopting principles of economy aesthetics, energy and conservation. It encompasses planning organization, administration, financial, legal and engineering aspects involving inter-disciplinary relationships. Consequently the life standards are also increased with production of more and more solid wastes especially in urban centers. Solid wastes are the direct consequences of what we do in our modern society. Majority of the waste is dumped in open landfill and people are not involved in solid waste decision making process or the solid waste management system.
The sight of a dustbin overflowing and the stench rising from it are all too familiar sights and smells of a crowded City. You look away from it and hold your nose as you cross it. Have you ever thought that you also have a role to play in the creation of this stench? That you can also play a role in the lessening of this smell and making this waste bin look a little more attractive if you follow proper methods of disposal of the waste generated in the house? Since the beginning, humankind has been generating waste, be it the bones and other parts of animals they slaughter for their food or the wood they cut to make their carts. With the progress of civilization, the waste generated became of a more complex nature. At the end of the 19th century the industrial revolution saw the rise of the world of consumers. Not only did the air get more and more polluted but the earth itself became more polluted with the generation of non-biodegradable solid waste. The increase in population and urbanization was also largely responsible for the increase in solid waste. Management of municipal solid waste involves (a) development of an insight into the impact of waste generation, collection, transportation and disposal methods adopted by a society on the environment and (b) adoption of new methods to reduce this impact.
Municipalities play a fundamental role in managing development and in the delivery of essential services. The way they carry out their functions directly affects people and the environment in which they live. Municipalities must be able to make choices that will promote sustainable living, especially in the area of managing household waste and waste from other sources. Municipalities will be moving towards sustainability if they take into account the economic, social and natural environmental factors in any activity that they undertake. When we produce waste, it eventually returns to the natural environment to land, water or the air. The environment that receives the waste must be able to assimilate it (take it up) without becoming degraded or polluted. Waste must be disposed of in a way that does not have an adverse effect on the environment.
Waste must be managed from the point of generation to the point of disposal through careful control of the following functional elements:
Litter and illegal dumping in a community are signs of unmanaged or poorly managed waste. Litter and illegally dumped waste can be defined as any waste found outside the formal waste management system (i.e. waste in the wrong place, scattered about in the streets, open spaces and the veld).
Principles of municipal solid waste management
Municipal Solid Waste Management involves the application of principle of Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) to municipal waste. ISWM is the application of suitable techniques, technologies and management programs covering all types of solid wastes from all sources to achieve the twin objectives of (a) waste reduction and (b) effective management of waste still produced after waste reduction.
Effective solid management systems are needed to ensure better human health and safety. They must be safe for workers and safeguard public health by preventing the spread of disease. In addition to these prerequisites, an effective system of solid waste management must be both environmentally and economically sustainable. (i) Environmentally sustainable: It must reduce, as much as possible, the environmental impacts of waste management. (ii) Economically sustainable: It must operate at a cost acceptable to community. Clearly it is difficult to minimize the two variables, cost and environmental impact, simultaneously. There will always be a tradeoff. The balance that needs to be struck is to reduce the overall environmental impacts of the waste management system as far as possible, within an acceptable level of cost. An economically and environmentally sustainable solid waste management system is effective if it follows an integrated approach i.e. it deals with all types of solid waste materials and all sources of solid waste. A multi-material, multi-source management approach is usually effective in environmental and economic terms than a material specific and source specific approach. Specific wastes should be dealt with in such a system but in separate.
Devendra pandey, Bauran M Choudhry performed study at waste disposal sites in gondia Maharashtra state India in December 2012 to exhibit the route optimization model for fixing collection centers, considering capacity of automobile as 3 tons being used for assortment and the distance between optimized collection centers and disposal facilities of solid waste with potential routes. The least distance locations of waste centers may be utilized by the municipal solid waste management for cost effectiveness with an objective of sustainable development of city. Finally the outcome of study reveals effective reduction of 22255 meters of distance covered per day by the automobile.
O. Apaydin, M.T. Gonullu performed case study at Yildiz Technical University in Trabzon turkey in December 2005 to municipal solid waste management system, decreasing collection/hauling costs, which consist 85% of total disposal expenditure, can be carried out by a route optimization. Thus, a huge amount of economic benefits is getting furnished. If route optimization is performed in solid waste collection/hauling process, due to reductions in “empty miles” negativity, total expenditures will be decreased. For 39 districts in the city, a shortest path model was used in order to optimization solid waste collection/hauling processes, as minimum cost was aimed. After performing routes by the software, the optimization routes were compared with the present routes. Success by the optimization process was around 4-59% for distance and 14-65% for time. Consequently, a route optimization process on the street stationary container collection system will contribute a benefit by 24% in total cost.
Jaydeep Lella, Venkata Ravibabu Mandla, Zuan Zhu performed case study in Vellore smart city of India from 2017 to sustainable development mainly in urban areas where growth rate is higher than other regions. In addition to recover the development of new technologies for reducing the rate of natural resource usage technology are being developed to recover the resources from waste GIS and remote sensing approaches come to the aid of managing this solid waste through its generation stage to dumping stage. This study proposes possible transfer station locations based on various design factors like land availability, and environment requirements. The optimal waste collection and routes derived from our analysis result in 59.12% reduction in the travel distance. This study also revels the vegetation cover changes at a depletion rate of 2100 square meters area in and around dumping sites.
Jose M. Gutierrez, Michael Jensen, Morten Henius, Tahir Riaz performed experiment on the run to become smarter in 2015 to smart waste collection system based on location intelligence. Municipal access networks to support all types of city management and maintenance services requiring a data connection. This paper practically demonstrates how internet of things (IOT) integration with data access networks, Geographic information system (GIS), combinatorial optimization, and electronic engineering can contribute to improve cities’ management systems. We present a waste collection solution based on providing intelligence to trashcans, by using an IOT prototype embedded with sensors, which can read, collect, and transmit trash volume data over the internet. This data put into a spatio-temporal context and processed by graph theory optimization algorithms can be used to dynamically and efficiently manage waste collection strategies. This experiment is carried out to investigate the benefits of such a system, in comparison to a traditional sectorial waste collection approaches, also including economic factors finally from the experiment this process allows creating the most efficient collection routes, and these are forwarded to the workers.
Swapan Das, Bidyut Kr. Bhattacharyya performed study waste management at sahibput state of India in March 2015 for Optimization of municipal solid waste collection and transportation routes. The existing MSW system suffer by high collection and transportation cost. A shorter waste collection system and transportation strategy can effectively reduce waste collection and transportation cost. This system is based on the problem of minimizing the length of each waste collection and transportation route. The heuristic solution is given in the paper is this scheme is able to reduce more than 30% of the total waste collection path length.