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Optmal Signal Design At Intersection Under Mixed Traffic Condition

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The traffic of our country is growing day by day, by which the control and management of traffic is a major problem. The traffic volume is increasing regularly so controlling heavy traffic is very hard for the traffic police and the accident rate are also increasing at intersections. So to overcome the crises of increasing traffic, design of traffic signals on squares of the cities are necessary. The traffic signal helps the vehicle to move on square or intersections with safety and Ease. Thus the design of traffic signal is an essential part of traffic control in major cities, which tend to economical and safe method for proper operation of vehicles at intersections. Traffic signals are the traffic control measure which is used to control the conflicts between vehicles on squares, where traffic flow intensity is high, mostly in cities.

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The first traffic signal was fixed in London in 1868, which was a semaphore- arm type signal. The sections where large number of crossings and right turn traffics are available there are a possibility of several accidents because of non orderly movement of vehicles. In earlier time traffic is controlled by traffic police manually by showing signs to the traffic in each direction but as the traffic volume is growing large and large it is not possible to handle the traffic by one traffic police so as to overcome this problem traffic signals has been designed to control the traffic with accuracy and timely. The traffic signals has three lights orderly red, yellow, green, by which the can guide the traffic whether to move or stop. The main purpose or function of traffic signal is to draw attention, provide meaning and time to respond and to have minimum waste of time. The main object of traffic signals is to avoid confliction of vehicles, easy and safe movement of vehicles at intersections. Traffic signal guides the vehicles to move or not by which the confliction between vehicles are avoided, the signal helps the vehicle to move or stop at intersection according to the direction of movement of vehicle. Thus creating a proper moving scheme of vehicles on intersection helps the vehicles to move fast and safely in their respective directions.

Traffic signals can define traffic as a power-driven signal display used to regulate. In Broader meaning, traffic signals include controls for crossroads, beaconing lanes, lanes Directional signs, and ramp metering signals when traffic signs are installed and properly operated, they can provide specific benefits in traffic control and security. Signal installation, however, also has certain disadvantages which may or may not be applicable to The objectives of a particular location traffic sign are many, as they do less Frequency of some types of accidents, increase in the ability to handle traffic The intersections, where the intersections bring a lot of economy on manual controls but Alternative work of the right of the road is necessary and in the end, to encourage the driver’s confidence By specifying correctly, on the other hand, signal installation increases on intersections Crossing total delays and fuel consumption and especially during the performance index Off peak time. The purpose of the current thesis is to define the rate of proper traffic flow for the optimum Signal time design At crossroads where there is a large number of crossings and right turn traffic. There may not be systematic movements in the form of the possibility of many accidents. First practice To prevent traffic through traffic police, alternate hints have been shown to prevent Cross on the roads, so that once the traffic stream of traffic flow separates, Isolation. Traffic Signal Control Tools, which can alternatively direct traffic to Stop and use red and green traffic light signals automatically.

Purpose of Traffic Signals

Traffic signals are utilized to assign vehicular and pedestrian right of way they are utilized to advance the deliberate development of vehicular and pedestrian traffic and to anticipate excessive delay to traffic signals ought not to be introduced unless one of the warrant determined by the manual on uniform traffic control devices (MUTCD) has been fulfilled the fulfilment of a warrant is not in itself legitimization for a signal A traffic design investigation must be lead to decide if the traffic signal ought to be introduced the establishment of traffic signals requires sound designing judgment, and must adjust the following, sometimes clashing, and goals.

GIS in India:

A Geographic Information System (GIS) is an accumulation or collection of hardware, software, geographic information, and staff intended to make, store, alter, control, dissect and show geologically referenced data. The information in a GIS relates to the characteristics of geographic areas or ranges. As such, GIS answers inquiries regarding where things are or about what is situated at a given area. The term “GIS” has different meanings in different contexts. It can relate to the overall system of hardware and software that is used to work with spatial information. It might refer to a particular software package that is designed to handle information about geographic features. It may relate to an application, for example a comprehensive geographic database of a country or a region.

Geographic Information System (GIS) is an essential tool to be placed on comprehending the information of spatial and non-spatial data over a space and time. GIS is a computer-based tool which can handle the entire database and help in the management of the entire rural development program (Durai et al. 2004). A GIS data database is quite suitable for planning, constructing and monitoring of urban roads since all the relevant data in this case is geographically referenced, and the GIS makes it very easy to store, retrieve, analyze and present geographically referenced data. In india many state governments have adopted GIS as part of their E-Governance initiative. The 2001-2021 National Road Development plan prepared an agenda for the application of GIS and GPS in various phases of highway management (Signh P 2006). The National Map Policy is also expected to give impetus to the growth og GIS in India. Several other states like Karnataka, are developing a GIS-based RIS for its Public Work Department (PWD) which will capture spatial data like boundaries (States, district, village, etc.), Transport network, Water bodies, power lines, important historical and tourist places, village locations and cross drainage locations, and non spatial data like state, district, village and PWD office details. The Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation (MIDC), Mumbai is also using a GIS for land management system. Other state governments also showing an interest in the development of GIS based systems.

Traffic in Hyderabad:

  • 26 lakh vehicles on road in Hyderabad, fourth largest in India, 33 lakh in GHMC limits
  • 600 vehicles added every day
  • Hyderabad has only 9% of city as road area as against 14%-18% in other metros
  • Vehicle density 723 vehicles/ km, second largest in the country
  • Almost less foot paths – pedestrians.
  • Hyderabad is the pilgrim city and also metro city with highest population density in Telangana.

Hyderabad is the center point of tourism in the state. The traffic is growing rapidly; the ever increasing number of two wheelers, four wheelers along with public transport and pedestrians poses a serious question mark for a smooth congestion free movement of traffic. The roads were built decades ago to meet the demands then. But now, the population has increased leaps and bounds and there is hence an urgent need to take necessary preventive measures.

Problem Statement

The problem of congestion and accident is very acute in highway transport due to complex flow pattern of vehicular traffic, presence of mixed traffic and pedestrian. Traffic accident may involve property damage, personal injuries or even causalities. The main objectives of traffic engineering are to provide safe traffic movement. The Hyderabad city is well developed. The rapid growth in industrialization, urbanization, tourism has increased transportation activities causing acute traffic problems particularly at intersections, due to mix complex flow pattern. It is important to design regulation system for this intersection for efficiency of operation, safety, speed, cost of operation, capacity are directly governed by design. A best design can reduce the major and minor accidents, delay and can orderly movement of traffic.

Scope of the present study

Study aimed at developing Signal Optimization in Jubilee hills road in Hyderabad to get rid of Traffic.

  • Provide reliable and detail road information, developed using GIS.
  • Provide Traffic information between two Junctions.
  • Provide Information of traffic in Pie or Bar chart to get more understanding.
  • Provide GIS map of area.
  • Aid Technical and administrative specialists both in managing costly and intensively used resources and in supplying information to decision-makers.
  • Support infrastructure planners by delivering existing traffic signal control in the study area while planning for future development.
  • To collect traffic volume at an intersection.
  • Collect Motorized and Non-motorized vehicle data separately.
  • And find total PCU in peak hours to design efficient Signal at an Intersection.
  • Design signal at an Intersection by various method.
  • Take the least possible cycle time in order to reduce the delay.
  • Validate the obtain results by the Simulation Software SPSS Software which gives the results of signal control according to real-time scenario.
  • Latest technology in traffic signal automation aids the traffic signal with GPS, such that the current traffic volume information is provided to the signal system by GPS connected to vehicles coming. GPS techniques can be used at the intersection to know the real time traffic data. Thus this helps in signal synchronization between two to three consecutive intersections and vastly reduces the waiting time of vehicles.
  • Moving traffic in an efficient manner
  • Minimizing delete two vehicles and pedestrians
  • Reducing Crash-Creating Clashes
  • Maximizing limit with regards to every crossing point.

Objectives of the study

  1. The main objective of the present study is to optimal signal design at the intersection that predicts the optimum cycle time for each phase by Webster method.
  2. Reduce delays on traffic signals at the intersection.

Definitions and notations

Various definitions and documentations should be comprehended in signal outline they are discussed below.

  • Cycle: cycle is a complete rotation of all the indications provided.
  • Cycle length: cycle length is the time in second that it takes a signal to finish one full cycle of indication. It indicates the time between the starting of Green Signal for one approach till the next time the green signal starts. It is signified by C.
  • Interval: thus it demonstrates that change starting with one phase then on to the next. There are two shot of intervals- change interval and clearance interval. Change interval is additionally called the yellow time demonstrates the interval between the green and red signal signs for an approach. clearance interval is additionally called on Red is incorporated after each yellow interval demonstrating a period among which every single phase indicate red and is utilized for tidying up the vehicles in the convergence.
  • Green interval: It is the green sign for a specific development or set of development and is meant by GI. This is the real term the green light of a traffic signal is turned on.
  • Red interval: It is the red sign for a specific development or set of development further more, is signified by RI. This is the genuine span the red light of a traffic signal is turned on.
  • Phase: A stage is the green interval in addition to the change and clearance interval that take after it. Along these lines, among green interval, non clashing developments are relegated into each stage. It enables an arrangements of development to stream and securely end the stream before the period of another set of development begin.
  • Lost time: It shows the time among which the crossing point is not effectively used for any development. When the signal for an approach turn from red to Green, the driver of vehicle which is in the front of the line will set aside some opportunity to see the signal (typically called as Response time) and some time will be lost here before he moves.

(1)Circular green alone: Vehicular traffic facing a green signal may proceed straight through or turn right or left unless a sign or marking at such place prohibits either such turn or straight through movement, except that such traffic shall yield the right of-way to pedestrians and vehicles lawfully within a crosswalk or the intersection at the time such signal was exhibited; pedestrians facing the green.signal, except when directed by separate pedestrian-control signals, may proceed across the highway within any marked or unmarked crosswalk.

(2) Yellow: Vehicular traffic facing a steady yellow signal is thereby warned that the related green movement is being terminated or that a red indication will be exhibited immediately thereafter, when vehicular traffic shall stop before entering the intersection unless so close to the intersection that a stop cannot be made in safety ;pedestrians facing a steady yellow signal, except when directed by separate pedestrian-control signals, are thereby advised that there is insufficient time to cross the roadway before a red indication is shown and no pedestrian shall then start to cross the roadway.

(3) Red alone: Vehicular traffic facing a steady red signal alone shall stop before entering the crosswalk on the near side of the intersection or, if none, then before entering the intersection and remain standing until the next indication ; provided, on or after July 1, 1979, vehicular traffic travelling in the travel lane nearest the right hand curb or other defined edge of the roadway, unless a sign has been erected in the appropriate place prohibiting this movement, may cautiously enter the intersection to make a right turn onto a two-way street or onto another one-way street on which all the traffic is moving to such vehicle’s right after such vehicle has stopped as required in this subdivision and yielded the right-of-way to pedestrians lawfully within an adjacent crosswalk and to other traffic lawfully using the intersection.

(4) Green arrow: Vehicular traffic facing a green arrow signal, shown alone or in combination with another indication, may cautiously enter the intersection only to make the movement indicated by such arrow, or such other movement as is permitted by other indications shown at the same time, but such vehicular traffic shall yield the right-of-way to pedestrians lawfully within a crosswalk and to other traffic lawfully within the intersection.

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