A glance reveals that the structure of the Persian gardens is uncultivated, but the excavation of the layers of meaning hidden behind this simplicity reveals a thorough representation of meanings, culture and identity.
The most complete form of open space in ancient Persia was in the gardens. On the other hand, it is impossible to build the garden for everyone, as the gardens are larger than the yards, and enjoy more economic and natural resources. The gardens were mainly for rulers and important people of the community, or to respect the tombs and other sacred places, which have both economic support and adequate manpower. The design of gardens, however, does not differ significantly from the design of the yard. Yes, they are only a more complete form. An Iranian garden can be seen as a set of beds of water, garden, and a variety of plants, along with several buildings that create a complex compound. In gardens, closed spaces are much lower compared to open surfaces, and there are close ties between open and open surfaces, this fit and the overall composition of space is the distinction of the garden from the yard?
The general form of gardens is regular. Their rule is usually square or rectangle?? and their surface is steep, surrounded by tall walls, and for someone behind them, it is like a treasure.
Form, In the uniaxial design, the shape of the garden is a rectangle, with the main axis that lies at the beginning and the end of the pavilion and the entrance building. The main axis is characterized by a stream of water, pavement, and trees. the grounds and other garden elements were also symmetry with respect to the main axis. An example of this garden can be referred to the Prince ‘s Garden and the Babur Garden in Kabul. In the second – type design, there is a center in the set that can be a pavilion or a large water bed or a combination of the two streams or a combination of streams and ponds. The sidewalks are perpendicular to each other along these streams with trees lined up on either side and divides the garden into four parts.
The presence of a stream and trees strengthens the lanes perpendicular to the perpendicular direction in addition to dividing the grounds larger than the first.
Fin Kashan Garden and Qajar Palace in Tehran, Forty Columns of Isfahan’s Nightingale Garden, Homayoun’s Tomb in Delhi and Akbar’s in Sikandra are examples of this garden.
The emphasis on the central garden is different in the main direction, in some gardens the emphasis on a certain axis, leading to the removal of the pavilion from the geometrical center of the garden, which is sometimes extended to the main axes either by extending the pavilion or opening a main portico in the desired direction or placing an important input at the beginning of that preference. Mixed Form, in the design of some gardens, the combination of two central and central systems can be seen in one state, two parts of the garden may be connected to one another with a central system and two other parts, such as Ghadamgah in Neyshabur.
In another case, the landscaping system follows a central order in the case of the restoration of buildings, such as Taj Mahal in Agra, India.
In extensive gardens, it is possible to find the best examples for compound axis and center. The complex consists of four different gardens or centers, which are interconnected along an axis to each other, which can be referred to gardens of Hezar jarib at shalimar gardens in Kashmir and Kashmir.
There are axes or subcenters in all kinds of gardening that in turn incorporate water into pathways and subdivisions and eventually create a narrower range of combinations of axis-centre.
The whole garden may also be divided into four gardens, not only in the general system but also in different parts of the garden, as far as it may be repeated in a regular hierarchy up to four times. All Persian gardens are constructed in the form of a network of straight lines and perpendicular to each other, among which the building blocks of the garden, namely water, plants, roads and buildings are regularly found, it is so important for the garden that even in a steep and steep bed, they are not overlooking the gardens of regular gardens. The discipline flows all over the garden, and in pure forms the beds of water, divisions, and even flooring are deliberately followed. A close look at Persian gardens shows that, despite the small differences, gardens usually follow the same structure in the location of the elements. Most gardens have rectangular plans and have been divided into square or pseudo-free shapes, perhaps to determine the distance between garden components and the exact placement of green spaces. In contrast to western gardens, the geometric structure of Persian gardens did not follow perspective principles, but was based mainly on the creation of unity and integrity ICHHTO. The rectangular shape can change slightly depending on climatic conditions and the possibilities and limitations of the sites. The plan of the Shahzadeh Mahan Garden is an extended example of a Chahar Bagh pattern in the form of an elongated closed rectangle in which the pavilion is located in the middle of the main water channels defining the north-south axis. The structure of Fin Garden is also an extended form of Chahar-Bagh in a series of fields and rectangles with a pavilion and a square basin in the centre.
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