Our Perception of the Works of the Literature (Daffodiles by William Wordsworth)

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I wandered lonely as a cloud

that floats on high o’er vales and hills,

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In these lines the writer says that he is wandering lonely as a cloud which floats over valleys and hills. How can a human have clouds’ characteristics, but we understand it because of the schematic knowledge in our mental cognition. We know a human can wander he has no certain destiny, and we have seen clouds floating on sky, which has no direction of its own but they float with the direction of wind. So a human can wander like a cloud, we have experienced that a cloud can be alone and it easily becomes victim of wind and it floats here and there with the wind. So a human wander too when he is no specific goal.

When all at once I saw a crowd,

A host, of golden daffodils;

In these lines the writer is saying that when he was wandering all of sudden he saw a crowd, we can understand here may be the writer saw a large number of people who are standing in his way, but in next line he says a host of golden daffodils. From here we get the knowledge that actually he was calling daffodils the crowd.

Daffodils are flowers how can they gather and make a crowd. But we have image schema of crowd that, a crowd is a substantial number of people or individuals assembled in a wild or confused or wild manner. So we can understand this trough schematic knowledge the daffodils must be grown naturally in large number and are not organized so that’s why a writer is calling them as crowd.

He says that daffodils are welcoming him as a host. We have image schema of host as an individual who gets or engages other individuals as visitors. So here the daffodils are playing the role of host for writer, welcoming him and entertaining him.

Beside the lake, beneath the trees,

Fluttering and dancing in the breeze.

In these lines the writer is saying flowers are beside the lake and beneath the trees and they are fluttering and dancing. Flowers do not have hands or legs how can they flutter and dance. But we can understand this comparison, through our schematic knowledge of dance, and movement of flowers. We know when wind blows the flowers or any other plant moves back and forth, and when person dances the body moves in direction and in different way. So we can understand the dancing of flowers.

Continuous as the stars that shine

And twinkle on the milky way,

They stretched in never-ending line

Along the margin of a bay:

In these lines the writers is describing the beauty of flowers and he has used the schematic knowledge about the stars that stretch continuously as far as we can see, and stars twinkle and sparks, so are the daffodils. Here we understand that because of image schema of night and stars and flowers. Like the stars stretch continuously the daffodils also ramificate to the limits.

Ten thousand saw I at a glance,

Tossing their heads in sprightly dance.

Flowers do not dance flowers do not get happy. But our schematic knowledge makes us believe that flowers can dance because of wind which creates tension in them and they toss and move. We understand the happiness of daffodils because of the scene that writer has tried to mention that it is a sunny day, wind is blowing. Through writer has not mentioned it clearly the day is sunny but we got the image when writer says that flowers are blinking and flowers can blink when sunlight reflect upon them, and because of sunlight we understand that it’s a sunny day.

The waves beside them danced, but they

Out-did the sparkling waves in glee:

In these lines we understand the dancing of waves through our schematic knowledge about dance and the waves in water, there occur many waves in water when wind blows and flow of water becomes faster and waves in water seems like they are dancing, and sunshine the water is twinkling, sparkling and shining. But daffodils are more beautiful so they surpassing the beauty of shiny waves, though flowers do not have characteristics of surpassing anything but we know the surpassing meaning through image schema, and we understand the concept of writer.

A poet could not be but gay,

In such a jocund company:

In these lines the writers is saying that by looking at such beautiful scenery he couldn’t resist to be happy and he is enjoying the company of flowers. Flowers are not companions but through the schematic knowledge about how it is to be in the company of friends. We understand the happiness and cheer of writer.

I gazed’ and gazed’ but little thought

What wealth the show to me had brought:

The writers gazed the daffodils for long time and thought that this vision has gave him the wealth of happiness. Nature doesn’t wealth to someone but we understand the concept by schematic knowledge that wealth is not just having money but peaceful and happier life is also a wealth.

For oft, when on my couch I lie

In vacant or in pensive mood,

They flash upon that inward eye

Which is the bliss of solitude;

And then my heart with pleasure fills,

And dances with the daffodils.

Here we understand that why the writer is so happy by having the company of daffodils. He has given the image of his life that he is lonely and he feels sad and empty. But the sight of daffodils have vanished his loneliness, and his heart is so happy that it also dances with flowers. Heart doesn’t dance but we know through our experiences that how it feels to be happy. The heart pounds and we can compare that pounding of heart with dancing.

Throughout the poem the writer has compared unlike things he has personified scenes. He started his journey alone and reached his destination by finding companion in the form of daffodils. Though writer has not mentioned his life at any point but we understand that he was lonely and aimless. And he had no means of happiness. But finally he got friend and happiness in nature.


Reading is a process which needs brainstorming to understand the vague ideas and complex connections that a writers make to bring beauty in the text. Reading process continuously alert readers brain, to understand the concept of writer with the users’ perceptions. Our perception and concept make image schema in readers’ mind. The cognitive, image schema is flexible which allows large and complex information to enter into it, and the more information enters image schema gets stronger. Therefore when read any piece of literature that contains complex metaphors, similes, personification we understand and dig out meaning of the writer. This will not be possible to understand if cognition is not fully developed. Our brain understands things which are not possible at all but get the idea and comprehend the text. William Wordsworth in his poem writes daffodils were dancing with joy, though flowers do not dance actually but we understand the moving of flowers back and forth with wind that might look alike as if flowers are actually dancing. The flowers hosted him and gave him joy and nature gave him wealth of joy. It doesn’t make any sense for a person who has never experienced nature, hasn’t been into it and felt the wind, the sparks of sunshine so understanding of these things would be hard. But for those it will make sense that have image schema of nature. Reading and understanding have become possible with schematic knowledge, and a reader can enjoy the classic piece of literature.


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