Ozone in Dentistry: Paradigm Shift

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Ozone is basically a protective shield of the earth that protects us from harmful UV radiation. It also helps in one way to control air pollution. The symbol of Ozone is O3. It contains three atoms of oxygen molecules. We all felt many time a particular fresh smell after every rainfall, which is because of Ozone only. The first Ozone generator was developed by Werner Von Siemens in Germany in 1857 and in 1870 there is the first report therapeutically of Ozone being used to purify the blood by C Lender in Germany. In 1881 certain pieces of evidence were also found for use of Ozone as a disinfectant which was mentioned in a book on Diphtheria. The world’s first water treatment plant using Ozone was installed in Ousbaden Holland in 1893. Ozone was used medically to treat wounds and other infections during World War 1. The name ozone was given to a gas (a Greek word that means ‘smell’) by the German chemist Christian Frederick Schonbein of the University of Basel in Switzerland 1840 (Seidler et al.; Vranes et al., 1999).2

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Medical-grade ozone is a mixture of pure three atoms of oxygen versus two atoms in normal oxygen molecules.1 Due to the presence of these extra oxygen atoms, Ozone has anti-microbial properties, it acts as a stimulator for the immune system, acts as an analgesic, ant hypnotic properties, antibacterial and antifungal properties.

Due to its properties, it is used for sterilization, disinfectant. It is nowadays used in every field including the medical, veterinary, and dental filed also. Ozone has these amazing properties due to which it flavoring the dentist to transform and become the part of revolutionary ozone by using Ozone in the very controlled application.

There are three different systems of generating Ozone gas.

1. The Ultraviolet system produces low concentrations of Ozone used in esthetics and air purification.

2. Cold plasma system used to purify air and water.

3. Corona discharge system produces a high concentration of Ozone. 1

The bacteria and viruses are lacking with the protective layers. so Ozone can easily penetrate and play a role of antibacterial property here. Whereas, the healthy normal cell contains their protective layers. The ozone oxidant potential induces the cellular walls destruction and cytoplasmatic membranes of bacteria (Thanomsub et al., 2002). 

Yes, it’s possible to prepare Ozonated olive oil at home. For this, high-quality extra-virgin oil is required. This extra-virgin olive oil is putting through the process of ozonation. Because Ozone is hard to stabilize, for that passing through it a tight container with the lead after which Ozone gas began to stabilize now in olive oil. An Ozone generator is required ideally to create Ozonated olive oil because Ultraviolet machines are not quite strong and effective to prepare Ozonated olive oil. Then place olive oil in the glass jar or in a container that comes along with the generator. The jar should be connected to the generator and should be covered before the generator turns on. Initially, tiny bubbles will appear on the top of the jar which signifies the process of Ozonation begins. This process is time-consuming and when the color of the olive oil becomes clear and thick, it indicates the complete formation of Ozonated olive oil. This Ozonated olive can be stored easily.

Among the various systems of ozone production, a corona discharge system is used for the production of ozone gas in an ozone generator, which releases a high concentration of oxygen which is required for antimicrobial and healing properties in the medical and dental field. The other system of ozone production is cold plasma system, ultraviolet system, electrolyte system which is low concentration ozone generation (below 2ppm) used for air purification and water purification and not same as coronal discharge. So, the Coronal discharge system is comparatively much better than others.

Periodontics: It is used for complete oral prophylaxis which includes scaling and root planing. It can be recommended for patients to cure hypersensitivity and as a mouth rinse also. In periodontal disease include gingival, sulcus, and pocket depth which can be irrigated with ozonated water, and ozonated gas is insufflated. For some lesions, ozonated oil is recommended for topical application. Single visited inflamed lesion can be cured.

Aesthetic dentistry: It is used for topical application on the scar of skin for effective healing. It is used as a hemostatic, to control bleeding during a surgical procedure. to disinfect cavities and margins of the lesion ozone is used.

Endodontics: Ozonated water can be used to irrigate the canals. To sterilize the canal, ozonated olive oil works efficiently. Infected canals with complete remission of the periapical lesion are also treated with ozone therapy. With its direct application, it prevents caries on the tooth, which is applied with the help of silicone cups.1

Oral surgery: No worries after the extraction, because of ozonetherapy. It accelerates the process of healing after a surgical procedure without complications. In the case of noninvasive surgical procedure, with pre and postsurgical cycles of Ozone therapy under which eight sessions are conducted which lasting 3 minutes each besides antibiotics and antifungal therapies have been applied for the treatment of bisphosphonate induced osteonecrosis of jaw.1

Prosthodontics: In the case of edentulous patients, to cure the ulcers because of impingement of denture, ozone gives magical effects if topically applied. Ozone is also used to disinfect the denture due to its properties. Also, ozonated water is used to disinfect the crown and bridges. To prepare a vital tooth, desensitizer ozone can be used.

Oral medicine: It provides relief from ulcerated oral mucosal lesions. Intralesional injection and topical application both give positive results. It is used as a carrier medium to carry a graft for biopsy and further surgical procedures.

Orthodontics: During orthodontic treatment, there are more chances of caries as there are more chances of food accumulation. To prevent caries patients are given mouth rinses with ozonated water.

Implants: It is used to disinfect the surgical area and surgical instruments as well. After the surgical procedure, a controlled amount of ozonated oil is used and applied to the surgical area. It promoted healing without complications. In the case of peri-implantation ozone therapy is indicated as it has antimicrobial, antibacterial properties. A study of gaseous Ozone showed the selective efficacy to reduce adherent bacteria on Titanium and Zirconia without any interferences in their adhesion properties. It also induced the proliferation of osteoblastic cells. Ozone eliminates Porphyromonas gingivalis from all surfaces within 24 sec to below the detection limit (99.94%), while Streptococcus sanguis showed the highest reduction on zirconia substrates (90%) and was more resistant. 3  

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