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History in Eyes of Different Researches

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‘History is the most dangerous product evolved from the chemistry of the intellect.’

What happens when the new part appears in the existing edifice? How to complete wounded structure? How a new part influences not only a form, organization and structure, but also memory of an existing building? This essay is written from the position of doubt not out of certainty. The main part of this text is list of built examples. It is like an architectural model, possible to observe from different point of views, not like a perspective drawing presenting situation from single point of view.

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It seems to be necessary to start from fro setting out the relationship between context and concept, Swiss architect Bernard Tschumi in his book titled ‘Event-Cities 3’ from 2005 wrote:

‘There is no architecture without a concept- an overarching idea, diagram, or parti that gives coherence and identity to a building. Concept, not form, is what distinguishes architecture from mere building. However, there is also no architecture without context (except in utopia). A work of architecture is always is situ, or “in situation,” located on a site and within a setting. The context may be historical, geographical, cultural, political, or economic. It is never solely a matter of its visual dimension, or what in the 1980s and 1990s was termed ‘’contextualism,” within implied aesthetic conservatism. Within architecture, concept and context are inseparable. Frequently, the also conflict.’

The concept may negate or ignore the circumstances that surround it, while the context may blur or dampen the precision of an architectural idea.’ He also distinguished three elemental ways how they are related:

1. Indifference, whereby the idea and its siting are superbly ignorant of one another- a kind of accidental collage in which both coexist but do not interact. Poetic juxtapositions or irresponsible impositions may result.

2. Reciprocity, whereby the architectural concept and its context interact closely with one another, in a complementary way, so that they seem to merge seamlessly into a single continuous entity.

3. Conflict, whereby the architectural concept is strategically made to clash with its context, in a battle of opposites in which both protagonists may need to negotiate their own survival.

Rem Koolhaas czyli suplementacja architektury.

Gdy w katedrze w Velezay niedomagały kapitele, Violett le Duc zaprzęgnął wyposażonych w średniowieczne narzędzia robotników do wyporządzenia nowych. Podobnie postąpił Rem Koolhaas, gdy Zolle Zolverein nie domagała kulturowo-starą kopalnię węgla należało przetworzyć w muzeum.

Problem został rozwiązany dodając wejście wyglądające jak pasy transmisyjne.

Jest zbyt wcześnie na wyrokowanie odnośnie zmiany postrzegania na poziomie społeczny, ale jest to obiekt, w którym nowa część zjawia się w sposób reciprocity. I suplementacja zachodzi na poziomie kulturowym. Nowa forma zjawia się w starym w sposób obopólne, bez starego nie miałaby sensu, stare bez nowej byłby kalekie. Przeistoczenie kompleksu fabrycznego w muzeum regionalnie, nie pozostanie bez wpływu na pamięć, usilniana przez zachowanie formy, łatwiej osadzi się w świadomości i pamięci jako muzeum tego regionu.

Mosque in Cordoba is the building which overlapping and conflicting layers makes it almost impossible to interpret but also it is enlighting edifice. Jorge Otero Pailos wrote:

‘Hernán Ruiz the elder’s 1523 design for a new cathedral within the mosque is seen by many as having ruined the mosque, but it undeniably also helped preserve it precisely at the moment in which the mosque was most vulnerable, at the height of the Spanish Inquisition, when it was culturally acceptable, even encouraged, to demolish mosques and build new churches in their place, as can be seen in Seville, Spain. 10 One could say that the analysis of Ruiz’s cathedral has been misconstrued from the start as a work of architecture, when, in fact, it was originally a work of preservation. Arguably, it was precisely the ability of this preservation project to appear as architecture that made it so effective. Here is a case in which preservation lies at the origin of architecture but can only be recognized as such retroactively—for anyone who dared construe the church as preservation in the early sixteenth century would have jeopardized the mosque, or perhaps even their own life.’

Rafael Moneo, “La Vida de los Edificios: Las Ampliaciones de la Mezquita de Córdoba,” Arquitectura, no. 256 (September–October 1985): 26–36. For Moneo, preservation is a mutation of architecture that retains the building’s formal logic, even if it changes its size, as was the case with the mosque, which grew dramatically, from a relatively modest columnar structure in the eighth century to an overwhelming 1,300 columns by the end of the tenth century, while retaining its compositional logic. Moneo’s typological understanding of preservation ran into a wall, literally and conceptually, when faced with Ruiz’s cathedral. For Moneo, the fact that the new building broke with the form of the old meant that it could not be considered preservation but rather was really a ruination of the old. His conclusion was similar to that of Charles V, who agreed to the construction under duress but later is said to have chastised the architect for “destroying what was unique in the world and replacing it with what can be seen elsewhere.”

Jurg Conzett

Engineering is usually considered as the profession which is constantly advancing and autonomous from building heritage. Swiss engineer Jurg Conzett is his project ‘Hohe Brucke’ at Vals shows that not only in architecture it is possible to work creatively with the existing structures. For Conzett who was working for Peter Zumthor for six years not only pragmatic issues matter. Jurg Conzett:

‘At first sight seemed a routine task: a nineteenth – century road bridge had to be widened to accommodate present – day traffic loads. But the presence of a rockfall gallery in front of the north abutment made the task more complicated, by limiting expansion to one side only’

The result is the structure which has a strong relationship with the old bridge. The new concrete structure frames the old one, its piers are placed symmetrically around the existing arched opening. Engineers raised the road level so the front view of arch is not blocked at any point. The increased gap between the old walls and the new piers is achieved by designing as slender a profile as possible in the transverse sense.

Fourth, the fascia of the bridge is also deeper than it need be; by completely covering the deck, it avoids the aesthetic ambiguity between a kerb element and a beam that spoils many smaller bridges. It also gives the beam a strong, calm archaic character that fits in well with the rugged environment and the old bridge.

Caruso St John Museum of Childhood

The Museum of Childhood is a space unusual for its liberating openness, revealing almost everything as you pass through its doors, and amplifying the sounds of its visitors. The cast iron structure was originally sited in South Kensington as the first purpose-built home for displays from the Great Exhibition of 1851 and was subsequently dismantled and moved to Bethnal Green in East London. Its prefabricated construction remains remarkable today for the delicacy and economy with which the space is covered, retaining an atmosphere of spectacle and transience.

The museum is one of the V & A family of museums but has lacked many of the facilities that one would expect of a national institution. Our project has comprised a phased set of improvements which have stabilized the condition of the historic structure, refreshed the display of the collections and the interior, and will now add facilities in a new building.

The new building stands across the front of the museum and contains front-of-house facilities, while at the same time forming an accessible entrance and bringing the lower floor into better public use. Its arrangement as a long low colonnade standing in front of the exhibition halls will make a strong front that museum has always lacked. The façade will be clad in a thin stone veneer of colored quartzites and porphyrus, with the stone and the glazing all flush. The colonnaded composition refers to the structure of the facades of the brick building behind, as well as to buildings from the early renaissance in Italy, which would have been in the mind of Victorian architects at the time of the museum’s construction.

Paul Klee. Hans Dollgast. Diener & Diener.

Architekci po drugiej wojnie światowej stanęli przed morzem ruin i wyzwaniem odbudowy. Być może najcięższe do rozstrzygnięcia było co zrobić z historią i pamięcią.

Dollgast w przeciwieństwie do Carlo Scarpy, który uprawiał adorację łączeń/joint uzupełnił formę

Zjawienie się nowego elementu w istniejącej/zastanej architekturze. Jego dopasowanie. Jego wpływ na całość. Wpływ całości na niego. Poziom przeistaczania. Można kwafilikować podobnie do Bernarda Tschumiego/Podobnie do tego jak Bernard Tschumi analizował

“The fate of the animals” obraz Franza Marca, jednego z założycieli awangardowej grupy “Der Blau Reider” ucierpiał przy pożarze w 1915 roku. W 1917 Paul Klee ucupełnił

In 1917 Paul Klee completed destroyed parts of the painting titled “The fate of the animals”. The painting was painter by

The move might be compared to the example from the world of art. The Faith of the Animals is the painting of Franz Marc from 1913, has been damage. Paul Klee in 1917 completed destroyed parts of the painting. He did it by repeating the formal language, but without eraseing what had happened to the painting.

Swiss office Diener and Diener in 2010 finished renovation and expansion of the east wing of the Museum of Natural History is Berlin

The Natural History Museum in Berlin August Tiede student of Friedrich Schinkel and it was opened in 1889. During second world war the building suffered extensive damage, fire bombs destroyed the east wing, leaving only a few section of the facade standing.

The New East Wing was designed to house famous animal specimens preserved in jars of formaldehyde.

The new façade consists of the remaining wall fragments from the largely destroyed building and pale gray concrete inserts. In this manner the new façade recalls façade’s original entity without negating its history. Casted concrete elements of the old façade. The cement relief conveys the impression of the original façade without faithfully repeating it. History is preserved as an imprint of what it once was. The overall appearance of the rebuild wing preserves the marks of its history, its destruction, and its renewal.

Po drugiej wojnie światowej niemieccy architekci staneli przed ogromym wyzwaniem, nie tylko za punktu widzenia profesjonalnego, ale i co zrobić z historią i pamięcią.

Hans Dollgast na szczęście uniknął ani renowacji i ukrycia, ani patetycznej i dramatycznej sposobu artykulacji. Jego Althe Pinakothek jest jednym z najbardziej stosownych przykładów co architekt operujący ze swojej dziedziny może zrobić w tej sprawie. Dla architekta aus Munich kwestia borderline była szczególnie istotna, linia pomiędzy nowym a starym, fascynujący moment zejścia.

Hans Dollgast. The war and the destruction had made a profound impression on all of us, but on no one more than Dollgast. What he was concerned to do was to keep or make the traces of history visible. In his projects for the Munich North and South cemeteries, his frugality led him to just supplement parts of them and not really extend anything. The war wound of the old edifice was patched up with rough-and-readily cleaned up bricks. Dollgast left the material unplastered, only retaining the structure and not the texture of the old in his repair work. His strategy was to repair things very cautiously, in such a way that the total impression of the building was retained, but without hiding the fact that it had once been destroyed.

His ’creative restoration’ of the Alte Pinakothek, makes him stand out in early postwar architecture, which was characterized by suppression of the Nazi period through faceless new buildings without a history. No architect has preserved history more convincingly and skillfully than Dollgast. In the reconstruction of the badly damaged Alte Pinakothek in Munich, which had already been released for demolition, Dollgast made the bomb crater readable using the simplest of means. The old structure of the building and the sparing supplements are starkly juxtaposed without any kind of aestheticizing. The break in German History was given form in a way that is a convincing as it is natural. Dollgast is as good as Scarpa, but has opposite approach. Italian master underlined the contrast between old and new in an aesthetisising way using material contrasts and joints, thereby creating a new, artistic unity of historical and modern building fabric. Hans Dollgast supplemented destroyed buildings with a simplicity that was both bold and self-evident, so that the buildings restored in this way assumed the status of new historical monuments. This historically conscious, lively architecture therefore has nothing to do with any restorative or reconstructive preservation of historic buildings. This quality neither fitted in with the need for suppression of the early postwar years nor with the self-representation of the ‘economic miracle’ period, and it fitted in even less with the postmodernist ‘search for identity’. Dollgast’s timelessness is likely to keep him in the role

In his reconstruction of the Alte Pinakothek, Dollgast repaired the façade. In the interior, he as the same time changed the structure, the concept, in a fundamental way. He moved the large stairs from the main buildings at the end into southern loggia, like a stairway to heaven.


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