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Understanding of Main Components and Characteristics of Mentoring

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Mentoring program (Formal or Informal) generates the knowledge from mentor to protégé. The protégé and the relationship between mentor and mentoring group will influence in the career development, self-progress and regulating, empowerment and authority to perform in the organisation. The protégé contributes the success of mentoring with job satisfaction and work effectiveness towards the support engages of mentor. The protégé enter in mentoring in four way phases to develop the objective and subjective. This phase may diversify the protégé when the mentor fails to guide and the relationship dysfunction in career and physiological.

Phase and the Function of Mentoring Relationship

The phases can be classified as Initiation, Cultivation, Separation, Redefining. The Phase of mentor relationship highlights the psychological and organization function that influence the career and the psychological function.

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Phase Description

Initiation The Mentoring is selected and the relationship is started.

Cultivation The monitoring program is provided and expanded to the maximum interactions between strong professional and personal relationship.

Separation Conflict, feeling abundant, structural changes by the psychological changes.

Redefinition The relationships become peer relation with high level of organizational competence.

The Interpersonal relationship function contributes to the career and psychological function in mentoring.

  • Career Function Psychological Function
  • Sponsorship Role modelling
  • Coaching Counselling
  • Protection Acceptance
  • Exposure in contacts and Resources Confirmation
  • Assign challenging work Friendship

Career development function focus on the protégé career advancement whereas psychological function help protégé’s personal development by relating to him or her on a more personal level.

Procurement of Protégé in Mentoring

Protégés Achieving Towards Objectives and Subjective in Interpersonal relationship

Mentoring has proven to be highly effective technique to reduce the barriers to equal opportunity. Management mentors offer a unique program that help companies to establish monitoring in the context of the diversity initiatives. The success of relationship between a mentor and protégé dependent on different circumstance that protégé prefers mentors with higher level of interpersonal skills, which incorporates behaviour regarding functional objectives towards career development subjective.

As a Mentor, there are things to move beyond the initial phase and in to a deeper, more comfortable relationship with protégé. To avoid difficulties in mentor-protégé relationship and to enhance the chance of a successful relationship, the Mentor for a protégé should be chosen based on the protégé personality trade expressiveness. In formal declaration of a mentor-protégé pair encourages protégé to take their responsibilities seriously and reduce the opportunities for mentors to “use” the protégé purely for their own gain. A good mentor is more than merely an individual who is not a sex molester or predator. When one predicts an event or outcomes the expectation changes the behaviour of the “Prophet” in such a way as to make the event or outcomes more like to happen.

Key mentoring skills to develop the competency skill, getting knowledge advice, feedback from mentor and support related to career and personal development. The skills are:

  • Building trust
  • Determine goals
  • Encouraging
  • Learning quickly
  • Managing the relationship

The Mentor selects the protégé who were motivated high competency level and had a strong personality of learning orientation and possessed the attitude of being self-esteemed, self-empower, confident and autonomous preceding. The effective monitoring helps in integrate diversity and improve communication, climate and organization function. A recent meta-analysis indicates that mentoring is related to the positive job attitudes for protégés as well subject and object indicator of career success. Finally, individuals who are mentored early in their career are more likely to mentor other in the later stage of the career. Thus mentoring activities are self-perpetuating. Better understanding of how protégé and mentor personality characteristics influence mentoring relationship success can help organizations better utilize formal mentoring relationships.

Protégé Diversified From Objective and Subjective

The mentor has the status and capacity to recommend the candidate for admission or promotion and recognize the protégé to the organization. As in the study the negative mentoring is more practised in long term relationship of mentor protégé than the short term. Relationship dysfunction may result in a continuum form in this regard to dislike to even angering a hospitality. This anger may be expressed or repressed, but result in psychological distress for the person experiencing such feelings. Diversified mentoring suggest the behaviour of mentor towards the protégé leads to the misunderstanding and misperception, many case, the cross race cross gender composition and inter relationship conflict which impacts the individual in the career development (subjective of individuals).

Sabotage is the characterised where the mentors never let the skilled protégé to overcome and never allow recognizing by others and the characteristic of taking revenge on the protégé are ignoring him/her to evoke a response. The communication style of mentor should be assistive behaviour to self-enhancing, expressive and feel good about the interaction and not to be aggressive and passive style behaviours that continue a non-productive cycle of interaction. To prevent subtle forms of sabotage in the protégé relationship, it is important to negotiate and establish what type of response the protégé hoping to receive.

Race, Gender, Age, Ethnic Origin, Sex and disability is the practice of treatment of protégé and mentors have largely been stopped. A framework of law and relation has evolved this significantly improved inter relationship behaviour. The threat of litigation to introduce several programs designed to train the manager and supervisor to avoid discriminatory practices. No enterprise today could dare to publically state that it denies minorities, women and the disabled opportunity for employment, remuneration and growth prospects. The race and age difference are still practiced and comparison made in the various circumstance of organization, and in between the mentor – protégé relationship. The development of individual protégé will affect his or her knowledge capacity will be dumped and the outcomes of his or her will be unsatisfied.

Generation gap in organization where competency has to override seniority as the main criteria for promotion, it is not uncommon to find protégés overtaking their mentors. “The generation gap is one of the prime causes of the shift between mentors and their mentees today. The mentor derives his power from knowledge of the organization passed, but that counts for less today. The mentees on the other hand, understand the future. In such situation, the mentees will outgrow the mentor (Adi Malia, HR – Head of the ESSAR groups).

Cross Gender in mentoring relationship less female mentor and more female mentor in the mentor protégé relationship, to avoid bias the organization choose the formal mentoring program, Women faces greater barriers to develop informal mentoring relationship then Men (Ragins and Cotton, 1991) and may therefore be more likely to seek formal relationship as a substitute for informal mentoring relationship. As known in ancient Greece, when Odysseus left to fight the Trojan War, he entrusted the education of his son Telemachus to his wise and trusted counsellor and friend, Mentor. Unknown to others, the goddess Athena disguised herself as Mentor for the protégé Telemachus. Although it is unclear exactly why Athena disguised herself as a male, gender may provide some of the explanation. The more female mentor should select for the mentor protégé relationship to avoid potential risk and gender partiality.

Sexual harassment is not only a physical abuse but also the annoying of mentor behaviour and communication in the protégé relationship. The individual who directly affected by the mentor will hesitate to approach the mentor. The mental psychological behaviour will affect the protégé career function. Sexual harassment may be understood as unwanted contact or communication of a sexual nature usually against women. Sexual harassment is increasingly becoming a source of stress. The stressful effects of sexual harassment stem primarily from two reasons: The direct affront of the victims personal dignity and the harasser’s interference with the victim’s capacity to do the job. Obviously, sexual harassment has caused some people to experience symptoms of illness including various forms of physical illness and voluntary turnover.

Conflict Functional conflict refers to the confrontation between two ideas and goals and parties that improve employees and the organization performance. Conflict stimulates interest and creativity. Organization performance is low when the conflict is extremely high or extremely low, while moderate or optimum level conflict contributes to high organizational performance. The dysfunctional conflicts can tear the relationships apart and interfere with the exchange of ideas formation and resource in group and between departments. Di functional conflict hinders and prevents organizational goals from being achieved. Conflict may turn Leeds to relational problem of submissiveness, dis job satisfaction, misunderstanding, misperception with mentor ad interrelationship, selfishness, negative office gossips, jealous in between protégé in the mentoring will disturb the protégé behaviour. The conflict directly impact the organization relationship and in the personal life. This reflects in the context of his or her self-perception.

Burnout will blast from the protégé. After the long term of mentoring, the protégé feels the potential is high couldn’t fulfil his career development not recognized, possessed and take over by the mentor protégé relationship. Disappointment happens when the protégé fails to receive the feedback, reward for his support in mentoring from the mentor and organization. This job burnout will arise in company restructuring, increased word demand, downsizing, conflict and in the continuing threaten of terrorism. This referred as chronic or long term stress.

Layoff survivors are defined as individuals who remain working at organizations that have recently had layoffs, Job demands (job insecurity and work overload) and job and personal resources (social support, optimism, career adaptability, and career management self-efficacy). Downsizing plan is a surplus workforce, trimming of labour force is necessary. Layoff is another strategy for dealing with surplus staff. This action is detrimental to both employees and employer. For employees layoff means joblessness and for employer it means loss of reputation. By assuming the protégé who interact (conflict and burnout) with mentor in the monitoring will be represented to layoff as said before, the mentor has the potential and capacity to change or admit. To avoid the protégé will make a physical transfer or will turn over to the mentor condition (if have) without delegating for some reason.

In the Mentoring, not all the protégé are affected by the mentor. The Mentor leads the relationship for the source of organization; his personal thought and behaviour will leads to some distraction in the interrelationship and in mentoring.

Desirable Features:

  • Nurturing the mentoring and engage the protégé in talented role.
  • Structured key monitoring skills.
  • Enhanced self-esteem and direct self-proceedings.
  • Safety inspection, provision and use of personal productive equipment.
  • Communication style in sensitive and good manner.
  • The high level of competency and skill based knowledge is developed.
  • The approachability of mentor will result in the outcomes.
  • High job satisfaction.
  • The protégé gets more benefit in achieving object and subject than mentor.
  • The protégé utilize the best from mentoring and become mentor in future.

Dis Advantages:

  • The protégé prefers informal mentor (formal mentor may have less effective of Communication and coach skill).
  • Mentor might use influence to introduce his or her protégé to important contact.
  • Unconscious bias and stereotype.
  • Unwanted relationship, sexual abuse and bias may practice to individual in mentoring.
  • Job dissatisfaction of protégé makes involve in conflict or physical transfer.
  • Changes in behavioral attitude due to distraction in the mentor protégé Relationship.
  • Technological and social updates will be low in aged mentor.
  • More bias, stress and deviation in cross difference relationship.
  • Negative approaching of mentor will affect psychological function of protégé.
  • Ineffective outcomes are waste of time, cost and energy.
  • Technical competence / expertise.

Behaviour of Mentor in Mentor Protégé Relationship

The table shows the phase difference between Protégé achieving towards objective and subjects and protégé diversify from objective and subjective:

Phase Protégé Achieving towards Objective and Subjective Protégé Diversify from Objective and Subjective

  1. Initiation Choosing mentoring program in formal or informal structure and starting the relationship. Cross verifying the skill and knowledge of protégé. Maximum informal structured program is chosen. Analysing the cross difference (age, race, gender, ethnic origin). Starting a bias relationship against the protégé.
  2. Cultivation Reduce barrier and give equal opportunity and effective techniques to everyone. The protégé receives maximum knowledge from strong professionals. Abusing the relationship, stress factor is increasing than the skill development. Making use of his authority to situation to happen. Some may defence or stop resisting
  3.  Separation Enhance his/her self-assurance and protégé knowledge is recognized to the organization and the society. The protégé is rewarded, promoted and become the mentor to another mentoring relationship. Depromoted, change in job in or out of the organization. Individual capability is not recognized and leads to psychological change, stress, disquiet, frustration, conflict and burn out or turn over for its authority.
  4.  Redefinition The relationship will be peer relationship in a beneficiary mentoring. The competence level of career and psychological function will be high. The relationship will never retain again and gain. Mentoring relationship never reaches the individual and organizational goal.


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