Plant & Animal Biology


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Plant and Animal Biology


The system allows the exchange of O2 and carbon dioxide between the cells and also the air, so sanctioning the consumption of O2 into the body for aerobic respiration and also the unleash of carbon dioxide for regulating of bodily fluid ph. During this exercise, we are going to examine breathing of the lungs to change the exchange of air between the alveoli and also the standard pressure , and conjointly explore the speed of carbon dioxide unleash from the lungs as a mechanics for dominant ph (Steven,2012).


The lungs are the primary organ of the body in charge of gas trade, in particular the move of oxygen into the body and the exchange of carbon dioxide out of the body. The biomechanical properties of the lungs are vital in how well they can move air in and out. The gas trade of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the body happens in three stages (Steven, 2012). Ventilation (alludes to the moving air all through the lungs) happens. Gas dispersion and take-up happens. The gas is transported by the blood. Lung volume differs among individuals and relies upon a few elements, similar to sex, body estimate, great shape, and modus vivendi practices like smoking. One marker of good shape is that the most amount of gas that the body utilizes all through strenuous action. You’ll utilize relate degree instrument alluded to as an estimating instrument to experience the amount of air that you basically inhale all through conventional breath or all through constrained inward breath and exhalation (Netfit,2009).

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The muscles that administration breathe create a refinement in respiratory organ weights. This weight qualification, which is moreover a work of the snap of the lungs, makes wind current. The stomach is that the principle muscle that is utilized for respiratory. Once the stomach contracts it makes the lungs expand and the thoracic pit winds up amplified. Subsequently, the space inside the cavum broadens. This expansion in zone volume causes a diminishing in weight that makes the respiratory organ grow and load up with air. Human lung limit can be estimated in a few different ways. One route, is by utilizing a bit of research facility gear called a spirometer. In any case, lung limit can likewise be estimated utilizing an inflatable. The information you get may not be as precise as that acquired utilizing a spirometer however. A few distinctive lung volume estimations can be made.

The biggest conceivable measure of air that can be breathed out subsequent to drawing a full breath, is the crucial limit. The measure of air that remaining parts in the lungs in the wake of breathing out regularly yet which can be ousted is the expiratory save. The measure of air taken in or removed amid typical breathing is known as the tidal volume. A specific measure of air in the lungs can’t be removed. This is the lingering volume (Netfit. 2009)Methodology In this activity, you will be measuring the vital capacity of class members of the class. If you have any breathing difficulties (asthma or other condition), you should not participate. You will be using the diameter of a balloon and the graph shown to estimate your capacities.

  1. Choose 3 subjects from your group and record data on their height, age, sex, and activity level.
  2. Measuring Vital Capacity- Stretch a round balloon several times to stretch it out. Take a deep breath and then exhale into the balloon. Pinch the end of the balloon and measure its diameter in cm. Record on data table.


There are some outliers observed in the graph.Figure 2: This chart represents the sum of tidal volume by gender and it shows that the female gender has a much greater tidal volume than that of the male gender.Figure 3: this chart represents the lung capacity of male and female genders separately. By observing the chart, females have a larger lung capacity than male lung capacity. This represented data does not support the statements in the discussion about men having a larger lung capacity than women.Figure 4: this chart represents the relationship between the lung capacity of both genders and the weight of both genders. The chart shows that the bigger the weight of a person the larger the lung capacity.


The lungs are part of the respiratory system which is a group of organs and tissue that function as one to assist in the way we breathe. The main function of the respiratory system is to transport clean air into the body while removing waste gases. ( Teckchandani, Kuhn and Harper. 2018).Every cell in the body requires oxygen to be able to live. The air that enters the body contains oxygen and other gases, once the air is in the lungs the oxygen proceeds into the bloodstream and carried through the body. In every cell in the body, oxygen is traded for a waste gas called carbon dioxide then the bloodstream carries this waste gas back to the lungs where it is the taken out of the bloodstream and then the waste gas is exhaled. This is a vital process called gas exchange. ( Teckchandani, Kuhn and Harper. 2018).

Deborah Leader (2017) refers to the total lung capacity to being the total amount of air in the lungs after taking the deepest breath possible. The total lung capacity can be tested in various ways but the way it was tested in this experiment was done measuring the tidal volume by inhaling and exhaling into a balloon then measuring the diameter of the balloon. As for the vital capacity the process in the tidal volume should be repeated but the only difference is that the subject must inhale as much as possible and exhale as much as possible.Lung capacity has a link when it comes to the age of a particular subject. Jones (2015 ) states that as human beings age, the lung capacity of every human being decreases and that over the period of life, lung tissue becomes brittle and breathing will then be diminished so less oxygen enters the cells.

According to Pruthi and Multani ( 2012 ) the ageing process is related to continuous narrowing of the homeostatic reserve of every organ. One of the main physiological changes related to ageing is the respiratory system representing the decrease in static elastic recoil in the respiratory muscle performance and in regards to the chest wall and the respiratory system thus resulting in more work of breathing. According to the lung capacity database the average vital capacity is 2.96 for every subject. There is noticeable difference in the lung capacity with ages 18 and 24 which have an average of 3.78 and 3.20 respectively which is a clear indication that the lung capacity has decreased by 0.58 thus indicating that the lung capacity of a person decreases as their age increases.

According to Aleman ( 2015 ) people that have a greater height will have a greater lung capacity than those that have a shorter height because they will have a lung capacity inferior to the lung capacity of a tall person assuming that both the tall person and short person are living a healthy lifestyle. This now means that a tall person that is a smoker can have a smaller lung capacity than a short person that exercises and lives a healthy lifestyle every day. As seen in the results subject A has a height of 187cm and a lung capacity of 4.621. Subject B has a height of 156cm and a lung capacity of 2 assuming that both subjects are living a healthy lifestyle thus proving that a greater height shall have a greater lung capacity. Subject C has a height of 191cm and has a lung capacity of 2.8 while subject D has a height of 154cm and has the estimated lung capacity of 4.9 thus proving that a short person can have a greater height compared to a tall person assuming that the tall person lives an unhealthy lifestyle.

There is also a relationship between the lung capacity of a human being and the gender of that specific human being. According to Aliverti and LoMauro ( 2018 ) assuming that both genders live a healthy lifestyle then men have bigger lungs than women thus giving men a larger lung capacity than women’s lung capacity. The characteristics of a woman’s lung has a smaller diameter airways, lung volumes, maximum expiratory flow and diffusion surface. Observing the results of the experiment, the results do support the claims made.Conclusion Females have more of a lung capacity than males. This might be because there are more females playing sports than males.

The lung volume of an athlete, singer, or wind instrument musician might be different from someone who does not participate in any of these activities because they trained their lungs to have more volume than a regular person. Athletes, singers, and wind instrument players need to have a large lung capacity in order to perform well in the actions they do.3. 0.651= 0.2 X yy=3.26My respiratory rate would have to be 3.26 per second. The total lung capacity and vital capacity under pulmonary fibrosis would decrease because the lungs will have less elasticity. Elasticity is needed in order for the lungs to expand and allow a person to breathe.

At this point, there is enough evidence to treat Melissa for asthma because we found out what drug helps her and what her conditions are. A bronchodilator works to combat the symptoms of asthma by taking away the mucus in the lung.Vital capacity relies upon the sex, age, height and academic level. the amount of education reflects socioeconomic standing that successively determines the standard of life. Higher living conditions will guarantee higher values of morphophysiological traits and these traits show increasing discrepancies with aging. Since they are available from families with lower socioeconomic standing, low education people may need been unable to develop their genetic potentiality to the fullest extent, and so these discrepancies stay noticeable throughout their time period.


  1. Steven B. Halls. 2012. Body Surface Area Calculator for medication doses. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 20 September 2018]
  2. Netfit. 2009. Lung Capacity Test. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 20 September 2018]
  3. New Health Guide. 2013. How to Increase Lung Capacity. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 21 September 2018]
  4. Natural News. 2011. Lung capacity predicts health and longevity. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 21 September 2018]
  5. Deborah Leader, R.N. (2017). Want to Know About Total Lung Capacity. [Online]. Available at: [Accessed on: 24 September 2018]
  6. Jones, C. (2015). Are your lungs the same age you are? And what to do to improve your lung health. [Online] Available at: Accessed on 25 September 2018
  7. Aleman, M. (2015). Does height effect your lung capacity?. [Online]. Available at:;/does-height-effect-your-lung-capacity/. [Accessed on 26 September 2018]
  8. Alverti, A. and LoMauro, A. (2018). Sex differences in respiratory function. Breathe[Online]. Available at: [Accessed on 26 September 2018]
  9. Teckchandani, P.H., Kuhn, B.T. and Harper, R. (2018). 139 Ratio of alveolar ventilation to total lung capacity (va/tlc) is an independent maker of copd severity. Journal of Investigative Medicine. 66(1). A124-125.

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