Recently, the rise of petroleum consumption in industrial, transportation and technology developments has been leading to depletion of the limited fossil fuel resources in the world. Because of this, researchers have been putting more attention to find alternative energy such as biodiesel which is believed can lower the dependency of fossil fuel and to support the environmental sustainability. Biodiesel can be produced from various vegetable oils and animal fats. However, the feedstock types, availability and material cost are the obstacles to the commercialization of biodiesel production. As edible oils have high yield of biodiesel and they are easily processed (Trans esterified) due to their lower free fatty acids. In contrary, the use of edible oils has given problems such as serious competition with resources for crop production. Moreover, the prices of edible oil plants have increased dramatically in the last ten years which have affected the economic viability of biodiesel industry. Therefore, many studies have been performed in exploration of non-edible oil which is also able to reduce the production cost and solving the food vs. fuel issue.
We can produce the biodiesel from varity of oil seeds both of non-edible or edible seeds. In past year s researchers was used vegetable oils like sunflower, cottonseed, peanut, soybean, rapeseed, palm, olive, linseed, coconut, pongamia and rubber seed etc. as alternate fuel for diesel. Most of the vegetable oils are edible oils so if we you use edible oil diesel price increase than now. We have very few number of non-edible oil seeds. This kind of seeds have very high scope of biodiesel production. Among the nonedible oil sources, Jatropha, Karanja, Mahua, Neems, Sal and Kusum are identified as potential biodiesel source. If we comparing with other sources non edible oil seeds have extra advantages as high growth rate, higher seed productivity, suitable for tropical and subtropical regions of the world like Sri Lanka. Diesel oil consumption is much higher than petroleum consumption. Because petroleum products are high cost, diesel is the alternative fuel of petroleum. But the bio diesel alternative source of diesel. We can produce biodiesel from used vegetable oils and edible and non-edible oil easily produced and renewable crops Vegetable oils have comparable energy density, cetane number, and heat of vaporization and Stoichiometric air fuel ratio with that of the diesel fuel.
The recent year biodiesel have receive much attention in the world because it is the possible renewable energy and alternative source of fuels. Biodiesel have several advantage compare with other petroleum fuels. There are less unburned hydrocarbons, less carbon monoxide, and very low sulfur level. Biodiesel is very environmental friendly fuel compare with others. However, an increase in the levels of oxides of nitrogen is reported with biodiesel. The diesel motors command the field of business transportation and horticultural apparatus because of its simplicity of task and higher fuel proficiency. The utilization of diesel oil is a few times higher than that of oil. Because of the lack of oil based goods and its expanding cost endeavors Aeron to create elective energizes particularly to the diesel oil for completely or incomplete substitution. It has been discovered that the vegetable oils are promising powers in light of the fact that their properties are like that of diesel and are created effortlessly and sustainably from the yields.
None other than Rudolph diesel the father of diesel motor exhibited the principal utilization of vegetable oil in pressure start motor. He utilized nut oil as fuel for his trial motor. Consistency of vegetable oils is a few times higher than that of diesel. Thickness of fluid energizes influences the stream properties of the fuel for example shower atomization ensuing vaporization and air-fuel blending in the burning chamber. Higher thickness of oils adverse affected the ignition in the current diesel motors. Directly significant research has been embraced to comprehend the execution qualities of biodiesel-filled motor and the biodiesel generation innovation. Biodiesel is a synthetically adjusted elective fuel for use in diesel motors 4 got from vegetable oils and creature fats. Biodiesel is delivered industrially by the Trans esterification of vegetable oils with liquor. Methanol or ethanol is the ordinarily utilized alcohols for this procedure. The immediate utilization of alcohols as fuel causes erosion of different parts in the motor. The Trans esterification procedure takes care of this issue. The carbon cycle of vegetable oils comprises of discharge and assimilation of carbon dioxide. Along these lines the collection of carbon dioxide in air lessens. This was an exploratory examination to decide the impact of fuel on the motor execution attributes and foundation expected to utilize this fuel. This testing demonstrated that the biodiesel could without much of a stretch be utilized as an attainable elective fuel.
Consequently it is smarter to utilize the non-eatable sort of oils for biodiesel generation. In India non-palatable compose oil yielding trees for example mahua sal linseed castor karanji neem elastic jatropha kusum and cashew are accessible in extensive number. The creation and use of these oils are low at exhibit due to their restricted end use. Use of these oils/biodiesel as fills in inner ignition motors isn t just diminishing the oil utilization yet additionally enhances the rustic economy. Endeavors are made here to deliver biodiesel from commonplace foul oil schlichera oleosa seed oil and to utilize it as the fuel in diesel motors. Portrayal of schlichera oliosa seeds oil: in the present examination 7 8 the schlichera oliosa seed oil a non-eatable compose vegetable oil is picked as a potential option for creating biodiesel and use as fuel in pressure start motors. The assessed accessibility of schlichera oleosa seed is around 25 000 oil potential for every tones per annum. In the past schlichera oliosa seed oil was traded from India to Germany. This market has now fallen away. Current 1979creation in India is 4000-5000 tons. Schlichera oliosa seed portions 0.45absences of tones of seed contain 40.3% of yellowish darker hued oil. The maybe a couple relatively round seeds somewhere in the range of 1.5cm in distance across and weighing in the vicinity of 0.5 and 1.0g.
The heaviness of 1000 seeds is 500-700 g. schlichera oleosa evergreen trees with the stature up to 30 m and the circumference up to 3 m. the leaves are par pinnate 20-40 cm long. The pamphlets are 2 to 4 sets elliptic or elliptic oblong coriaceous edges whole and summit adjusted. The blossoms are minute yellowish green; male or promiscuous fascicled in spike like axillary racemes 7.5 to 12.5 cm long. The natural products are berry globose or ovoid and hard cleaned. The seeds are dark colored unpredictably elliptic marginally compacted slick encased in a succulent aril.
Botanical name:-Schleichera oleosa
English name:-Ceylon oak, Lac tree, Gum lac tree
Distribution:-Sri Lanka and China. Malaysia, Indonesia, India
Ayurveda usage:-Skin disease, Malaria, Cholera, Headache, Jaundice, Dysentery
Parts used to make medicine:-Bark, Leaves, Fruit, Roots
Herbal food and madicines in Sri lanka-dr Seela Fernando
“Kon (Schleichera oleosa) is a large shady tree. It has hard timber and is used for beams and Agricultural implements. The seeds of this tree contain as oil which is known as Kon tel. This oil is used as a hair stimulant and a cure for itch on the head. In India it is known as kusum oil. It is used in cooking and also as liniment and hair oil. “(18th January 2015 by Kanchana Rathnayake)
Expanding interest of customary wellspring of fuel has made individuals to consider on elective energizes that can substitute the present request by some rate. this paper shows the best in class around there by investigating number of commitments from the each of the three orders i.e. organic science chemistry and engineering are taken together to fundamentally survey the work done in this field of bioenergy. Substantial number of overview and work is done in distinguishing proof of non-eatable seeds as potential feed stock from which oil can be removed. Exploratory examination has been finished by a few analysts in creation of bio-diesel from oil extricated trans-esterified and considered distinctive properties of fuel delivered. This fuel and its diverse mixes with dieselare utilized by architects to comprehend the execution of motor. Number of test work is finished utilizing fuel accessible from non-consumable oils feedstock to examine execution of this biodiesel utilizing pressure start motor. in this survey the discoveries detailed by various analysts have been condensed to representation the utilization of non-palatable seeds for the generation numerical model and use of bio-diesel.
Biodiesel generation is the way toward creating the biofuel, biodiesel, through the compound responses Trans esterification and esterification. This includes vegetable or creature fats and oils being responded with short-chain alcohols (normally methanol or ethanol). The alcohols utilized ought to be of low atomic weight, ethanol being a standout amongst the most utilized for its minimal effort. Nonetheless, more prominent transformations into biodiesel can be achieved utilizing methanol. Despite the fact that the Trans esterification response can be catalyzed by either acids or bases the most widely recognized methods for generation is base-catalyzed trans esterification. This way has bring down response times and impetus cost than those postured by corrosive catalysis. In any case, antacid catalysis has the hindrance of its high affectability to both water and free unsaturated fats display in the oils.
Biodiesel has numerous ecologically useful properties. The principle advantage of biodiesel is that it can be depicted as carbon impartial. This implies the fuel creates no net yield of carbon as carbon dioxide co2 this impact happens on the grounds that when the oil trim develops it retains an indistinguishable measure of co2 from is discharged when the fuel is combusted. Indeed this isn t totally precise as co2 is discharged amid the creation of the manure required to treat the fields in which the oil crops are developed. Compost generation isn’t the main wellspring of contamination related with the creation of biodiesel different sources incorporate.
The esterification procedure the dissolvable extraction of the oil refining drying and transporting. every one of these procedures require a vitality input either as power or from a fuel both of which will for the most part result in the arrival of greenhouse gases. To legitimately survey the effect of every one of these sources requires utilization of a system called life cycle investigation. Our area on lca takes a gander at this investigation. Biodiesel is quickly biodegradable and totally non-dangerous which means spillages speak to far to a lesser extent a hazard than fossil diesel spillages. Biodiesel has a higher glimmer point than fossil diesel as is more secure in case of a crash.
Koan (Schleichera oleosa) seed oil will be extracted by hydraulic press expeller. The seeds will be collected and removed seed coat and dried in the sun for three days at 35В°C to reduce moisture content up to 7%. There after the seeds will be mechanically pressed using hydraulic expeller to extract oil.
Characterization of oil
The properties of oil will be measured to determine the free fatty acid (FFA) value as which limits the alkaline transesterification. If the FFA value is too high it can react with catalyst to form soap which can inhibit methyl ester yield (Biodiesel). It was found that FFA value of the oil was 3 mg NaOH which is in favorable limits for alkaline transesterificaion.
Sufficient amount of oil will be put in to steel container and heat to 60В°C using electric hotplate. The oil will be well shacked during heating to homogenize the oil for good sampling. Required amount of NaOH estimated by titration with 0.1% NaOH solution in 1 ml of heated homogenized oil with 10 ml of methanol. The required amount of NaOH calculated for 1L of Koan seed oil and NaOH thoroughly mixed with 20% of methanol from oil volume using magnetic stirrer. Prepared pre mixture will be added gradually and thoroughly mixed with Koan oil. The oil continuously mixing using magnetic stirrer for 1 hour to complete the transesterification reaction. The mixture of oil leave for three to four hours to separate Koan Methyl Ester from glycerin and the container open to evaporate excess methanol. Due to high specific gravity of glycerin, it was settled down and Koan Methyl Ester was appeared in upper layer. After glycerin was separated Koan Methyl Ester carefully collected in to clean container. After Koan Methyl Ester separate from glycerin, 50% volume of water from oil amount add into the Koan Methyl Ester for further removal of glycerin and it leave for three to four hours for settling. The water remove carefully after 3-4 hours and Koan Methyl Ester will be separated.
Testing the properties of biodiesel
Kinematic viscosity Cannon-Fenske viscometer use for measuring Kinematic viscosity of Yellow oleander Methyl Ester at temperature of 40В°C according to method ASTM D445 and EN ISO 3104:1976 test methods. The readings were recorded three times and average values were calculated. The Kinematic Viscosity was calculated using following equation. Kinematic viscosity (cSt)=Time(s)Г—tube constant K (cSt/s)
Viscosity of fuel must be considered to maintain engine performance that is close to diesel operation. High viscosity causes poor flow of fuel in the engine combustion chamber during intake stroke and takes a long time to mix with air.
Specific gravity and density measurement
Specific gravity of fuel will be measured using mass volume relationship with reference to water and the density was measured using hydrometer following ASTM D 1298 and EN ISO 3675 test method. According to these standards, density should be tested at 15 . The measurements take three times and averaged the value. The molecular weight of biodiesel is one of the factors that contribute in the increase in biodiesel density.
Flash point measurement
Open cup Flashpoint tester use to measure the flash point according to method ASTM D 93and EN ISO 3697 test methods. Flashpoint must be considered in assessing the overall flammability hazards of material. The vapor of the fuel stops burning at this temperature if the source of ignition is removed. Many factors affect on the flash point of the biodiesel and residual alcohol content is being one of them. Moreover, flashpoint is influenced by the chemical composition of the biodiesel, including the number of double bonds, number of carbon atoms, etc.
Calorific value measurement
Calorific value is the measure of heat energy content of a fuel. Higher calorific value of fuel is desired as it releases higher heat and consequently improves engine performance during combustion. Biofuel usually has lower calorific value than mineral diesel because its higher oxygen content. Model Parr 6100 Oxygen Bomb calorimeter was used for finding of gross calorific value following the ASTM D 240 method.
In our country fossil fuel consumtion is very high. And year by year the fossil fuel using percentage will increasing but the fossil fuel production percentage is decreasing so we have to do produce replacement of the fossil fuel like biodiesel. Here the research aim is produce the biodiesel from the non edible oil like Schleichera oleosa seeds, Jatropha, Karanja, Mahua, Neems. Specially we are using schleichera oleosa seeds to produce biodiesel.
Date Value Change, %
2014 50.3 9.58 %
2013 45.9 -3.04 %
2012 47.3 -3.13 %
2011 48.8 13.35 %
2010 43.1 -1.08 %
2009 43.6 -2.91 %
2008 44.9 -1.16 %
2007 45.4 4.49 %
2006 43.4 -4.09 %
2005 45.3 -1.10 %
2004 45.8 -1.24 %
Advantages of Bio-diesel
Decreasing fossil fuel demand.
Reduce greenhouse gas effects.
Reduce the petroleum and diesel and other non-renewable fuel usage.
Use the non-edible oils and waste used oils.
Environmental friendly manner.
Reduce the price of fossil fuels.
Decreasing the global warming potential compare with others.
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