It is recognized that poverty is a state or condition when a person or a community lacks the financial resources and essentials to carry on a minimum standard of living. For an example complete lack of the most basic personal needs for living such as food clean and safe drinking water clothing and shelter or even health treatment. However poverty can be multifaceted by including social economic and political elements. Relative poverty which is part of the social element occurs when a person or a small group of the community does not enjoy the certain minimum level of living standards compared to the rest of the population in that particular country. Hence poverty line income is used to define the minimum level of income that is deemed adequate in a particular country. It is credence to say that the poverty line income is normally higher in developed countries such as the united states compared to the developing countries such as Malaysia.
According to the statistic by business insider Malaysia the united states is categorised as the higher-income countries with a poverty line income of usd21.70 a day. On the other hand Malaysia is in the category of upper-middle-income with a poverty line income of usd5.50 a day. B. Discuss the reasons of poverty in rural and urban area. Rural area is defined as a particular area in a certain country which is not developed such as villages while the urban area is the cities or town of the country with a higher population density compared to the rural area. Rural areas are normally isolated having less contact with the main society. As a result the development of that area is still laid back. For an example the lack of access to proper education causes limited number of educated individual. Even if an individual is educated the level of their education and skills are much lower than those in the urban areas. Hence it will be more difficult for the individual to find a stable and formal job in the cities as there is much better qualifier than him. Fail in finding a job the individual will end up going back to the rural areas taking over their family job such as being a farmer or a fisherman. Moreover lower level education means less exposure to science and technology. When the cities are starting to grow crops will high quality fertilizer or watering the crops with advanced sprinkler however the villagers are still using the old-fashioned way to plant crops doing everything manually.
Therefore it is imperative to say that the rate of harvest in the cities will be higher with a better quality crops meaning earning money in the fastest rate when the villagers have to depend on their luck or the weather hoping for a better crop harvest which in return will only generate a low level of income sometimes even below the poverty line income which is not sufficient to carry on a basic living. Unlike in rural areas people living in the cities are more exposed to different learning opportunities having the chance to acquire various unprecedented knowledge and skills. Although there may be a small group of individual or family is earning much lower income compared to the other population in the city and may be having a difficulty in maintaining a living in the city yet their situation will be much better than the ones living in the rural areas.
At least they have access to clean water food and basic education. On the other hand there are more job opportunities in the urban areas than in the rural areas. Where jobs in rural areas are limited to farmers and fishermen jobs in urban areas vary from business partner doctors teachers mechanic salesman to barber promoter house cleaners and so on. C. What are the measures to eradicate poverty and which measure do you think is the best although poverty in some countries was reduced by every year yet it still cannot be completely eliminated. Every country is finding avenues to eradicate poverty in order to create a country where people can live peacefully without worrying their meal everyday. China is the first developing country that had successfully reduced their country poverty rate to 3.1% by the end of 2017. More than 700 million people reduced poverty according to China’s national poverty line. Chinas approach to reduce poverty 2018 in addition the government had the responsibility to create more job opportunities for the society. Program such as the subsidized employment are very helpful to those individual who are long-term unemployed and other disadvantaged workers to re-enter to the working force. Moreover the government and enhance the law by increasing the minimum wage in order to help those worker who have to earn a living for his family. As in 2014 in the united states by raising the minimum wages to usd10.86 per hour compared to the current state of usd7.25 per hour more than 4 million of the Americans can be lifted out from poverty.
American progress 2014 in my opinion education is one of the best ways to eliminate poverty. Through education individuals especially the younger generation can be exposed to different knowledge and skills hence result in a higher chance in getting a job. A better job means a better pay which will help in improving lifestyle. Therefore it is important for the government to take more focus on the younger generation let it be in the rural areas or urban areas ensuring them to have the equal chance to access to education. Question 4 a. In your opinion do you think agricultural sector is important to Malaysia as its contribution to gdp is getting lower Malaysia being a tropical country with hot and humid weather almost throughout the year definitely contributed to the success of agricultural sector in our country. According to statistics it is true that the contribution of this sector towards gdp is getting lower which is from rm25597 million in the fourth quarter of 2017 reduced to rm22406 million in the first quarter of 2018 trading economics 2018 the gdp rate is reduced approximately by 0.12%. Although the rate is getting lower yet it is still an undeniable fact that the agriculture sector had helped to support the economy of the country. Since the days before independence our country had played a vital role in producing agricultural products such as pineapple black pepper palm oil rubber and so on. Malaysia once acts as one of the most popular port and attracted many people from all around the world to trade. Malacca is one of the popular port in Malaysia. With the large amount of people trading in Malaysia it had indeed created more job opportunity to the people in the country especially for the ones that lived in the rural areas as they are the communities that are skilled in agriculture. Back to now with the development of science and technology various job opportunity are available and people are more attracted to the advance of technology resulting in less people involved in agricultural sector. However it still plays an important role in the country’s economy as Malaysia remains as one of the largest exporter for oil palm in the world.
Agriculture is acts as the main job for the people living in the rural area. B. What are the challenges faced by the agricultural sector and recommend solutions for the challenges. One of the major challenges faced by the agricultural sector is that over 66% of the people in agriculture are over 50 years old as the younger generation does not wish to get involved in it. The star 2013 one of the possible reasons is that due to the advance in science and technology the younger generation are more attracted to gadgets like computers and smartphones and think that agriculture is a boring job to do. They are more willing to sit in an air-conditioned office facing the computer for a whole day. Therefore the government acts an important role in encouraging the youth to involve themselves in the agricultural sector. Promotion can be made to let the youth to have a chance to be exposed to the advantages and the importance of agriculture in our country. The second factor is the excess of crops. The weather in our country is the right temperature for the crops to grow; hence sometimes it may produce more than expected.
As the crops are perishable goods and cannot be kept for a long time most of the crops became rotten even before reaching the city. Therefore it is crucial to invest in research and development in agriculture to find the best way to preserve the harvested crops. With the help of science and technology it is possible to prolong the lifespan of the crops and hence able to be shipped out to other countries. Although it is stated above that the crops may produce more than expected yet in some cases the crops can be less than expected. This is due to the sudden change of the climate diseases or pest infestation. In the case of large scale agriculture a sudden break out of diseases may ruin the whole plantation. Hence research and development is needed to create hybrid species that are immune to diseases and able to withstand the climate change. More efficient and environment friendly pesticides can be made to get rid the harmful pest. C. Explain comprehensively the national agricultural policy 3 nap3 the purpose of the national agricultural policy 3 nap3 is to set new strategy for the future development of the agricultural sector in order to able to solve all the challenges faced by the sector. It aims to increase the productivity of the crops with the most efficient and environment friendly way and hopes to deepen the linkages with other sector especially the science and technology sector as it can help to enhance all the machines and tools used in agriculture. It is important for the people to address the development in agriculture as more competitors are emerging from different countries let it be small or large country.
More challenges will be faced by this sector if the people do not take effort to enhance the quality of the crops or maintain the relationship with their retailers or overseas traders. Through nap3 resources are aimed to be fully utilised reducing wastage that are hard to cleaned up and to maximise the national income export earnings and producers income as much as possible. By maximising the use of land and using advance technology to check the suitability of the soil is important to prevent wastage. The government will have to encourage the people in the country to involved themselves by explaining the process and final achievement of this project.
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