Bangladesh is a peaceful moderate Muslim country. It is the third largest Muslim country according to the number of its follower. All of the people of all community live here peacefully with sharing their biggest religious festival among each other without any conflict. International community appreciates such sorts of relation and they gave example of such co existence of all community in Bangladesh to other nation regarding their concern about the rights of minorities there. But suddenly this stable situation is turning to unstable situation through some bombing attack of some religious extremist group in name of peace.
At the beginning of the terrorist attack political party members were the worst sufferer. Most of the victims of such terrorist attack were the members of most ancient political party Bangladesh Awame League. Some individual intellectuals were also the target of the terrorist group who nurture the concept of secularism. During the last tenure of BNP-led coalition government between 2001-2006, most of the terrorist groups tried to show their strength through some heinous attack. Government was not fully prepared to face such sort of attack.
Terrorist attack is minimized to a tolerable number after 2006. The government concerning authorities tries to control the situation at any cost. The leader of JMB so called Bangla Vai was hanged with some of his partners. After those terrorist activities has hardly seen. After holding state power Awami led coalition government took some creative action for uprooted the militancy. But immediate after 5th January election situation was changed radically, the government was busy for its moral validity and opposition parties claimed free, fair and incredible and participatory election. Taking the opportunities of political dilemma terrorist groups reorganized and tries to show their presence. A remarkable number of incidents were happened in 2016.
Ansarul Islam follows the ideological message of American citizen Anwar al- Awlaki who was a member of al Qaeda. He gained his popularity among the Bangladeshi youths through is ideological stands in the name of Islam. Jashimuddin Rahmani was the group leader who worked under supervision of Awalaki in Bangladesh. They work through social media. It started its chapter in Bangladesh at the beginning of 2013 which target the secular bloggers, gay activists, liberal Journalist, writers, intellectuals, artists who publicly insulted Islam by their words or works. Most of the members of the groups are well educated, and hold high socio economic status. It’s the matter of strange that the members of such group’s don’t know each other. The groups are divided in three parts. These members are divided in three groups; Dawa, Asqari, media wing .
Jamaat-ul Mujahideen Bangladesh was founded before two decades.The founder of JMB is known as Bangla vai. The JMB recruits young men as well as whole family members. The specification of JMB regarding their recruitment is considering the female members. The basic targets of JMB is to establishment of Islamic Law.There were initially clear distinctions between Ansar and JMB. Ansar members saw themselves primarily as defenders of Islam battling Western secular ideas, rather than fighting for an Islamic state. JMB is conducted its activities under the supervision and direction of Majlis-e-shura. There are four sections of members in JMB. They are Amir,Ehsar,Gayeri Ehsar, Sudhis and Saathis. Today, the majlis-e-shura reportedly has seven members. It approves all attacks and killings.
Terrorist attack in Bangladesh is not new experience but after the series attack on different individual of liberal bloggers, anti Islamic, liberal writers, intellectuals, members of minority community, religious preachers, this matter come to all of the stakeholders as a matter of great concern, during 2016. Government concerning agencies tried their best to control the situation. In the mean time Holly Artisan attack by militants was the headline of most of the prominent electronic and print media of the globe which kills about 21 individuals among them most were foreigner. ISIS Indian sub continent declared their relation to the attack but government reject such and claimed that these are the members of New JMB.
The causes of radicalization of Bangladeshi young may be discussed under four Heads. These are economical, political, religious, and cultural. Sort description of causes of radicalization is given below:
Poverty is one of the driven force to be radicalized of a group of people. Most of the international foundation found that most of the radicalized youth are from lower socio economic status. so we should take action against poverty. Economically insolvent young have last for money to change his economic condition he also believes that only economical solvency can change his social status and it also help to gain power. Social inequality is the common scene of all of the state .Due to the economic condition family unrest is the common scenario in most of the LDC country like Bangladesh.
Political ingredients are other remarkable causes of radicalization for terrorist work. Political parties govern the state and they make laws and regulations through legal process. In making laws and governing the state both the ruling party and opposition have the role to smooth functioning the state organs. To govern in ideal way all stakeholders should play their role properly otherwise autocratic and oppressed rule may be the result which is one of the causes of terrorist work. The rule of autocratic government cans create political frustration which can help a group of people to radicalize. Sometimes the members of opposition are used to create unrest to political order.
Religion is the most talked word which is uttered with the word of terrorism. Most of the expert use the term as a synonymous to terrorism. Especially they use Islam as the driving force of terrorism. Muslims have many reason to protest for their rights .We saw the crushed again the Palestinian Muslim, Jammu and Kashmir Muslims are the worst sufferer of internal and international conflict, Chechen and wager Muslims are ill treated by the non Muslims government. No other religion in this globe is as worse sufferer as Islam. Exceptional treatment of western community against Islam helps to radicalized. Religious slander, temptation for heaven, lack of proper explanation of Holy Quran and Hadith, misrepresentation of verses of Holy Quran, politics in the name of Religion can help to be radicalized.
This is the age of destruction of constructive culture that’s contributes a lot to be radicalized to militancy. The educative culture is out of imagination now days, degenerate culture, obscene cinema are the fundamental part of recent culture. The lack of recreation opportunity crate an ample opportunity to the young to pass their time using social media which is one of the mass used method of spreading radicalization.
Law enforcement agencies need to do monitoring and surveillance in their assigned areas. Especially they need keep surveillance on the youth and their activities. Punishment: Law enforcement agencies should ensure the punishment of terrorists who are apprehended. They need to make a quick arrest of the accused and send those to court with strong evidence. Severe punishment of terrorists will discourage others from engaging in such activities.
The law enforcement agencies can take initiatives for a remedy and correction of the deviants. Teachers can monitor the activities and behavior of students. If there any suspicious changes observed, they can inform the student’s parents or guardians. Local Drivers and Dynamics of Youth Radicalisation in Bangladesh.
Educational institutions can take programs for awareness raising about the harmful impact of radicalisation. This could be in both in formal and informal ways. Teaching the curriculum, identifying moral or value education and emphasizing on those lessons could be one way to make the base for identifying right and wrong ways of life. Besides the class, teaching institutes could arrange programs where a scope could be created to discuss radical activities.
Educational institutions could emphasis on vocational education so that the learners do not frustrate about their job and employment prospects. Building a progressive society through education. Knowledge based progressive society can eliminate radical activities. Educational institutes can play the main role in building a knowledge- based and progressive society through education. Inclusive education: Inclusive education would build the mind of a child to respect all religions and segments of society.
Family members need to monitor the activities and behavior of their children. If anything is found to be suspicious, they need to talk and find out what is going on and should undertake necessary remedial actions.
Family could play a role to aware the youth about militant activities. Education through family: The family is the main educator. The family could provide value education, ethics, moral, humanitarian and religious education and also could teach what is right and what is wrong Family bonding: Quality time with children is essential for family bonding. Attention to their problems, accountability, effective communication among family members, especially with the children would increase the family bonding.
leadership in the family could help to build ideology; help the children to understand the fact or situation rather ishing them. Local Drivers and Dynamics of Youth Radicalisation in Bangladesh 4. Religious institutions Religious education and explanation of religion: Religious institutes can play a role by providing correct religious education and not to provoke anyone to radicalisation. They can enhance religious knowledge and make sure that not spreading wrong explanation and radical ideology. Discourage fundamentalism: During discussions on religion in mosques especially in khutba at Jummah Prayer (Friday congregation), fundamentalism should not be encouraged.
There is a need to explore the correct and responsible knowledge in the religious education institutions and correct analysis of the Quran and Hadith.
The religious institutions need to explain that religion does not approve radical activities. There should be sustained discussions for not supporting radical activities, even if it is in the name of religion. They could discuss the bad effects on the society and punishment in the religion for harmful radical activities.
Media itself should be aware first about radicalisation and thereby not fall into the trap of spreading radical views through their own ignorance. Mass media should produce programs and writings for awareness and constructive activities. They can aware people by exposing the destructive aspects of radicalisation.
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