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Product Process Analysis by Using 3d Scanner & 3d Printer

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In the 21st century, where fashion and style statement is changing day by day and so the choice of people and so, everyone is looking for something new and unique concerning design specifications. In Traditional Jewellery Manufacturing Process there are a number of steps and tools, machines involved along with the skilled labour to produce a single design, but it is difficult to make some of the complex shapes and designs using these processes as they are more time consuming and cost will also be high of the product moreover the production rate is also affected as one of skilled labour is busy in fabricating one of such design.

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Jewellery is commonly associated with diamonds, pearls, gold and other such precious stones, but the one known as Artificial jewellery refer to jewellery made using low-cost metal and gemstones. Artificial jewellery comes for a variety of occasions such as traditional wear or everyday wear and is style statement of people.Rapid Prototyping plays a vital role in inducing flexibility in the product design, development and customisation. Various products such as industrial products, medical products/instruments, jewellery and others can be modified, re-designed or customised for improving their efficiency with the help of RP techniques.

This research will enhance the manufacturing productivity for an Intricate Shaped Jewellery design production process by using three of Rapid Prototyping Techniques that is, Additive Manufacturing, Stereolithography Apparatus (SLA) and Fusion Deposition Modelling (FDM) which uses base material in powder, liquid and solid form in order to increase production rate, decrease production cost and time.

In today’s competitive business environment, flexibility has become essential for providing customised products to the customers. Many organisations have recognised its importance and are now focusing on flexibility to create value for their corporation. These organisations need to understand how flexibility can improve the performance of its supply chains. Rapid Prototyping plays a vital role in inducing flexibility in the product design, development and customisation. Various products such as industrial products, medical products/instruments, jewellery and others can be modified, re-designed or customised for improving their efficiency with the help of RP techniques.

Jewellery is often used for various reasons including function (such as watches or hairpins), a marker of social status (wedding rings), affiliation to a particular ethnic, social or religious group (cross, tribal beads) amulets for protection and artistic display. Jewellery is commonly associated with diamonds, pearls, gold and other such precious stones, but the one known as Artificial jewellery refer to jewellery made using low-cost metal and gemstones. Artificial jewellery comes for a variety of occasions such as traditional wear or everyday wear and is style statement of people.

The aim of the project is to enhance the manufacturing productivity for an Intricate Shaped Jewellery design by using three Rapid Prototyping Techniques that is, Additive Manufacturing, Stereolithography Apparatus (SLA) and Fusion Deposition Modelling (FDM) which uses base material in powder, liquid and solid form in order to increase production rate, decrease production cost and time. Traditional jewellery manufacturing methods are time-consuming and are limited to produce designs according to a skill level of workers. However, some complex designs are complicated to be produced or take more time and involvement of an efficient worker who uses different processes to bring design to its final finished form. A process like cutting, filing, polishing and decorating are repeatedly used for producing such designs and shapes.

However, by using RP techniques, the design can be directly printed resulting in the reduction of steps and labour. So, Automation is being used to produce some Intricate Shaped Jewellery “Structures”. So, our objective is to produce such intricate shaped jewellery “structures” by using different Rapid prototyping techniques available with us such as Additive manufacturing technology, Fusion Deposition Melting and Stereolithography Apparatus (SLA) and compare them. Using 3 D printing technology improvements can be made regarding flexibility of making intricate designs, reduction in cost, enhancement of quality and finishing of product, speed up the design process and reduce the time from design to final product development, reduction of labour cost.

Product Process Analysis by Using 3D Scanner & 3D Printer

3D scanning process during the product analysis is only the first part of a project for data collection. It is difficult to get precise measurements from objects with complex shapes using conventional methods such as callipers or rulers. 3D scanning is a fast way to collect surface measurements from physical objects into 3D digital form accurately with repeatable results. 3D scanners are becoming more widely adopted due to their affordability and versatility. Many industries use 3D scanning as part of their processes to improve efficiency and product quality. The purpose of a 3D Scanner is usually to create a point cloud of geometric samples on the surface of the subject. These can then be used to extrapolate the shape of the subject (a process called reconstruction) Today industry uses several types of scanners depending upon their advantage and limitation.

3D PRINTING is a form of additive manufacturing technology where a three dimensional object is created by laying down successive layers of material. It is also known as rapid prototyping, is a mechanized method whereby 3D objects are quickly made on a reasonably sized machine connected to a computer containing blueprints for the object.

This revolutionary method for creating 3D models with the use of inkjet technology saves time and cost by eliminating the need to design; print and glue together separate model parts. Now, you can create a complete model in a single process using 3D printing. The basic principles include materials cartridges, flexibility of output, and translation of code into a visible pattern. It can make physical models of objects either designed with a CAD program or scanned with a 3D Scanner. It is used in a variety of industries including jewellery, footwear, industrial design, architecture, engineering and construction, automotive, aerospace, dental and medical industries, education and consumer products.

This technology can be classified as

  • Stereolithography (SLA)
  • Fused deposition modelling (FDM)
  • Selective laser sintering (SLS)
  • 3D Printing
  • Laminated object manufacturing (LOM)

These technologies (3D Scanner & 3D Printer) are employed in almost every industry such as

  • Rapid tooling: patterns for sand casting, investment casting, injection moulding.
  • Rapid manufacturing: short production runs, custom made parts, on-demand manufacturing, manufacturing of very complex shapes.
  • Aerospace & Marine: wind tunnels models, functional prototypes, Boeing on demand manufacturing.
  • Automotive RP services: needed from concept to production level, reduced time to market, dies & molds.
  • Biomedical application: prosthetic parts, presurgical planning models, use of data from MRI & CT scan to build 3D parts, customizes surgical implants, mechanical bone replicas, anthropology, forensics.
  • Architecture: 3D visualization of design space, iterations of shape, sections models.
  • Sculptures: 3D scanning, layered fabrication, replicas, original work
  • Fashion & Jewellery

Problem Definition

In today’s competitive business environment, flexibility has become essential for providing customised products to the customers. Rapid Prototyping plays a vital role in inducing flexibility in the product design, development and customisation. Various products such as industrial products, medical products/instruments, jewellery and others can be modified, re-designed or customised for improving their efficiency with the help of RP techniques. So, here three different RP techniques SLA,FDM and powder liquid and solid as base material form will be compared.

Objective of the Research

The objective of the project is as follows:

To carry out three dimensional scanning of the carburetor body with 3D Scanner and convert it into 3dimensionl model using Rhino software.

Printing of intricate shaped jewellery using differnt RP technologies which includes Additive manufacturing technology, Fusion Deposition Melting and Stereolithography Apparatus (SLA)

And to perform comparative evaluation of these three technologies for production of artificial jewellery.

Scope of the Research

The main purpose of this research is to the find the possibilities of bringing down cost and manufacturing time for unique limited and intricate designs. By use of this technology artificial jewellery makers will abandon traditional manufacturing processes and use 3D printing to create custom, limited-edition jewellery as by use of this technology one can instantly produce beautiful pieces that previously required large-scale, complex, and expensive machinery.

Research Plan

The research planning can be summarized as

Firstly an intricate shaped jewellery has to be scanned through 3D Scanner (COMET LED Scanner), which convert the real object into digital form in the form of clouds of data (point clouds). The scanning procedure was done through COLIN3D software.

The colin3d will generate a stl file which is used for further processing in 3D modelling software i.e RHINO

Then the jewellery straucture will be produced using different RP techniques

Further, the printed bases of jewellery will be analysed on basis of a no of factors.

In this chapter we have studied about rapid prototyping and 3D scanning. These technologies accelerate the designing and manufacturing phase of a product in industries. The research plan involves all the three phases of a product i.e digitizing, modelling/designing and production.

A significant work of literature is available in books and journals explaining the process of Rapid Prototyping and its application in various fields, Additive Manufacturing (3D printing) and Fusion Deposition Modelling. In this chapter, a review of relevant literature has been made. There are many findings which are contributed by numerous researchers and engineers regarding the application of Rapid Prototyping in the development of numerous products, some of which are as follows:

Rapid Prototyping:

Up to 1980s additive fabrication was used only in the electronics industry for fabrication of microchips then later in 1980s more broad patents were developed. Here the main achievements are reported chronologically and concerning the fabrication technology. Many papers have been published on the rapid prototyping and tooling techniques in particular product development. The literature has been made in the view of methods, products and development of products in various applications.

Charles W. Hull, invented stereolithography (STL), a process in which liquid polymer hardened on being exposed to ultra-violet light. He described a method and an apparatus for making solid objects by depositing layer by layer of this material in a patent issued in August 1984 (C.W. Hull US Patent 4575330A, August 1984). The first object build by him was a cup, 5cm in height and this fabrication process lasted for months. Two years later he founded the 3D system, a company producing and selling the fabrication machinery. Since then a growing number of researchers, developers and users joined the world of rapid prototyping, encouraging developments regarding widespread coverage and performance.

The Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM) technology was developed in the late 1980s (M. Feygin et al. 1988). In this method a laser was used to cut the cross section from the object with paper, melted plastic coated on the bottom side of the paper layer. From the emergence of the first RP system in 1988, RP technology has been introduced successfully in the industries of automotive, aerospace, electronics, toy and so on.

P.F.Jacobs reported that Rapid Prototyping (RP) is a new forming process which fabricates physical parts layer by layer under computer control directly from 3D CAD models in a short time. In contrast to traditional machining methods, the majority of rapid prototyping systems tend to fabricate parts based on the additive manufacturing process, rather than subtraction or removal of material. Therefore, this type of fabrication is unconstrained by the limitations attributed to conventional machining approaches (P. F. Jacobs, 1996 ).

In 2001 introduced the development of a distributed rapid prototyping system via the Internet to form a framework of Internet prototyping and manufacturing for the support of active product development. The proposed methodology is targeted at a broad audience using a different range of computer systems to access remotely located rapid prototyping facilities via the Internet for prototype fabrication. The methodology is used for both educational research for teaching evolving rapid prototyping technologies and remote scientific visualisation (F. E. H. Tay, Y. P. Khanal, K. K. Kwong, 2001).

In 2003, it was reported that in the manufacturing industry is evolving toward digitalisation, network and globalisation. With the fast advance and extensive usage of the Internet technologies, they have been widely employed in developing manufacturing systems to associate various product development activities, such as marketing, design, process planning, production, customer service, etc., distributed at different locations into an integrated environment (H.Yang.D .Xue,2003) vi.Rapid prototyping is a direct production of finished part using rapid manufacturing tools. Thus, there are benefits in merging rapid prototyping capabilities with the high-volume throughput of conventional manufacturing. With the help of 3D printing processes, there is potential for a tool-less production of finished goods. (David B, 2003)

H.B. Lan, K.S. Chin developed a teleservice system for RP service bureaus to support the implementation of the Web-based RP manufacturing (H.B. Lan, K.S.Chin, 2005)

There are different applications of Rapid prototyping in mechanical engineering. A single prototype of the product design is very important in the development of a new product before the allocation of money in new assembly lines or production facilities (Dheeraj N, Mahaveer M, 2012).

Rapid Prototyping helps in the manufacturing of lightweight photopolymer-resin models for wind-tunnel tests (Wang C, Yin, G, Zhang Z, Wang S, Zhao T, Sun Y, Yang D,2015).

Additive Manufacturing

Additive Manufacturing (AM) play a vital role in inducing flexibility in the product design, development and customisation. Various products such as industrial products, medical products/instruments, new design/ customisation that need modification for improving their efficiency with the help of AM systems.

AM systems can create a physical part directly from the digital model by accumulating layer by layer of a given material according to the detailed design. The AM systems comprise of scanning, printing, post-processing, software and support technologies and processes systems with the complete ecosystems that are used in new product development, customisation, product printing, remanufacturing, inspection, model development, reverse engineering, scaling, weight reduction and other allied activities ( Haeseon J, Emanuel S, 2000 & Javaid M, Kumar L, Kumar V, Haleem A, 2015)

AM provides flexibility in the part shape, size and helps in refabricate; these technologies have the flexibility to create new product attributes which are not possible with existing technologies (Haeseon J, Emanuel S, 2000).

For the new model, it is an essential tool which is used to reduce waste; inventories of spare parts; the weight of the product and provides greater flexibility in the location of manufacturing; new graded composition of products (BIS (2013) Future of Manufacturing)

AM has grown in many fields including those in education, medical, design and manufacturing of prototype before starting the commercial production (Javaid M, Kumar L, Kumar V, Haleem A, 2015). v.AM is used for automated generation of a physical object with the help of its computer-based model and needs STL format of files, which are exported from the CAD model for providing to the Rapid Prototyping technologies. The software is used to slice the CAD-based model into thin cross-sections, and the part is built layer by layer. (Haleem A, Khan A, Javaid M, 2016).

AM also plays a significant role in reverse engineering applications, E- Manufacturing processes, Rapid Tooling, product design and development, customisation and prototype development ( Kumar L, Tanveer Q, Kumar V, Javaid M, Haleem A, 2016)

AM plays a significant role in product development, it helps in cost reduction of product development cycle time and is a valuable tool for rapid product development (Javaid M, Haleem A, Shuaib M, Kumar L, 2017 )

AM shows potential, and it is credible to use the AM developed structure for the manufacture of a vast number of components of the trade, including the building (Nannan GUO, Ming C. LEU, 2013)

Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is a Rapid Prototyping technology commonly used for modelling, prototyping, and production applications. It is one of the techniques used for 3D printing. FDM works on an “additive” principle by laying down material in layers; a plastic filament or metal wire is unwound from a coil and supplies material to produce a part. Thus, FDM is also known as a solid-based AM technology was developed by S. Scott Crump in the late 1980s and was commercialised in 1990. The term fused deposition modelling and its abbreviation to FDM are trademarked by Stratasys Inc.

Need for Study

In the 21st century, where fashion and style statement is changing day by day and so the choice of people and so, everyone is looking for something new and unique concerning design specifications. In Traditional Jewellery Manufacturing Process there are a number of steps and tools, machines involved along with the skilled labour to produce a single design, but it is difficult to make some of the complex shapes and designs using these processes as they are more time consuming and cost will also be high of the product moreover the production rate is also affected as one of skilled labour is busy in fabricating one of such design.

So, the solution to this problem could be found by the implementation of RP methods to produce an intricate shaped jewellery design and increase production rate, decrease production cost and time. Here, direct printing methods will be used to produce elaborate design jewellery, and on the basis of it, Rapid prototyping can be proven as a replacement for production of Jewellery.

Existing System: Traditional Jewellery Manufacturing Process

Jewellery designing and manufacturing process includes most advanced technologies and dedicated research. Jewellery making is a very composite process undergoing a long and slow procedure making it tough from the initial point to the concluding point. Each product undergoes a series of procedures to be transformed into a beautiful jewel.

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